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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Dekarbonisierung in Salzburgs Skigebieten – Entwicklung von Optimierungsalgorithmen und Energiemanagementsystemen zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz, Minimierung von Emissionen und Optimierung von Flexibilitäten [Decarbonization of the skiing areas in

Kritzer S, Passegger H, Ayoub T, Liedtke P, Zellinger M, Stadler M, Iglar B, Korner C, Aghaie H. Dekarbonisierung in Salzburgs Skigebieten – Entwicklung von Optimierungsalgorithmen und Energiemanagementsystemen zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz, Minimierung von Emissionen und Optimierung von Flexibilitäten [Decarbonization of the skiing areas in Salzburg – development of optimization algorithms and energy management systems to increase energy efficiency, minimize emissions and optimize flexibility]. Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik. 31 May 2021.

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Winter tourism is an energy-intensive branch of industry. The aim of the FFG funding project Clean Energy for Tourism is to support Salzburg’s skiing areas on the way to decarbonization by developing technologies and business models. In this article, the developed ICT infrastructure, the optimization algorithms and the business models are presented.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Detailed NOX precursor measurements within the reduction zone of a novel small-scale fuel flexible biomass combustion technology

Archan G, Scharler R, Pölzer L, Buchmayr M, Sommersacher P, Hochenauer C, Gruber J, Anca-Couce A. Detailed NOX precursor measurements within the reduction zone of a novel small-scale fuel flexible biomass combustion technology. Fuel. 15 October 2021.302:121073

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A novel biomass combustion technology with a compact fixed-bed operated with a low oxygen content and double air staging was investigated. Minimized flue gas emissions at high fuel flexibility were achieved only with primary measures. The fuel nitrogen conversion mechanisms were investigated in detail in the secondary zone of a 30 kW lab-reactor, designed as efficient reduction zone. Experimental investigations were carried out to determine the distribution of gas temperatures, main dry product gas components as well as NOX precursors such as NH3 and HCN along the height of the reduction zone. The objective was to determine and understand the various fuel nitrogen conversion mechanisms in the reduction zone that can minimize NOX emissions.

It was found that the HCN/NH3 ratio increases with the fuel nitrogen content. This corresponds to an unexpected opposite trend to typical biomass grate furnaces. It was concluded that it is crucial for the HCN/NH3 ratio whether the released nitrogen tars are already cracked in the fixed-bed or only in the gas phase, as in the novel technology. Furthermore, the influence of gas temperature, air ratio, mixing, recirculated flue gas and residence time on the formation and reduction of NH3, HCN and NO is discussed.

Finally, this novel technology achieves NOX emissions of<95 mg·m−3 and 175 mg·m−3 for woody and herbaceous fuels, respectively, which is well below the small-scale state-of-the-art for the respective N contents and it achieves fuel nitrogen conversions to NOX in flue gas of 35% and 25%, respectively.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Digestate as Sustainable Nutrient Source for Microalgae - Challenges and Prospects

Bauer L, Ranglová K, Masojidek J, Drosg B, Meixner K. Digestate as Sustainable Nutrient Source for Microalgae - Challenges and Prospects. Applied Sciences (Switzerland). February 2021. 11(3):1 - 211.

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The interest in microalgae products has been increasing, and therefore the cultivation industry is growing steadily. To reduce the environmental impact and production costs arising from nutrients, research needs to find alternatives to the currently used artificial nutrients. Microalgae cultivation in anaerobic effluents (more specifically, digestate) represents a promising strategy for increasing sustainability and obtaining valuable products. However, digestate must be processed prior to its use as nutrient source. Depending on its composition, different methods are suitable for removing solids (e.g., centrifugation) and adjusting nutrient concentrations and ratios (e.g., dilution, ammonia stripping). Moreover, the resulting cultivation medium must be light-permeable. Various studies show that growth rates comparable to those in artificial media can be achieved when proper digestate treatment is used. The necessary steps for obtaining a suitable cultivation medium also depend on the microalgae species to be cultivated. Concerning the application of the biomass, legal aspects and impurities originating from digestate must be considered. Furthermore, microalgae species and their application fields are essential criteria when selecting downstream processing methods (harvest, disintegration, dehydration, product purification). Microalgae grown on digestate can be used to produce various products (e.g., bioenergy, animal feed, bioplastics, and biofertilizers). This review gives insight into the origin and composition of digestate, processing options to meet requirements for microalgae cultivation and challenges regarding downstream processing and products.

Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Digestate as Sustainable Nutrient Source for Microalgae—Challenges and Prospects

Bauer L, Ranglová K, Masojidek J, Drosg B, Meixner K. Digestate as Sustainable Nutrient Source for Microalgae—Challenges and Prospects. Applied Sciences. 2021.11(3):1056

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The interest in microalgae products has been increasing, and therefore the cultivation industry is growing steadily. To reduce the environmental impact and production costs arising from nutrients, research needs to find alternatives to the currently used artificial nutrients. Microalgae cultivation in anaerobic effluents (more specifically, digestate) represents a promising strategy for increasing sustainability and obtaining valuable products. However, digestate must be processed prior to its use as nutrient source. Depending on its composition, different methods are suitable for removing solids (e.g., centrifugation) and adjusting nutrient concentrations and ratios (e.g., dilution, ammonia stripping). Moreover, the resulting cultivation medium must be light-permeable. Various studies show that growth rates comparable to those in artificial media can be achieved when proper digestate treatment is used. The necessary steps for obtaining a suitable cultivation medium also depend on the microalgae species to be cultivated. Concerning the application of the biomass, legal aspects and impurities originating from digestate must be considered. Furthermore, microalgae species and their application fields are essential criteria when selecting downstream processing methods (harvest, disintegration, dehydration, product purification). Microalgae grown on digestate can be used to produce various products (e.g., bioenergy, animal feed, bioplastics, and biofertilizers). This review gives insight into the origin and composition of digestate, processing options to meet requirements for microalgae cultivation and challenges regarding downstream processing and products.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Drivers and barriers in retrofitting pulp and paper industry with bioenergy for more efficient production of liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels: A review.

Mäki E, Saastamoinen H, Melin K, Matschegg D, Pihkola H. Drivers and barriers in retrofitting pulp and paper industry with bioenergy for more efficient production of liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels: A review. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2021.106036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2021.106036

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Ample interest for more efficient utilization of bio-based residues has emerged in the Nordic pulp and paper (P&P) industry, which uses virgin wood as feedstock. Although different bioenergy retrofit technologies for production of liquid, solid, and gaseous bioenergy products have been applied in the existing P&P mills, the number of installations remains small. The lack of profound knowledge of existing bioenergy retrofits hinders the replication and market uptake of potential technologies. This review synthesises the existing knowledge of European installations and identifies the key drivers and barriers for implementation to foster the market uptake of potential technologies. The bioenergy retrofits were reviewed in terms of technical maturity, drivers, barriers and market potential. Based on this evaluation, common drivers and barriers towards wider market uptake were outlined from political, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal perspective. Technologies already commercially applied include anaerobic fermentation of sludge, bark gasification, tall oil diesel and bioethanol production, whereas lignin extraction, biomethanol production, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization are being demonstrated or first applications are under construction. The findings of this review show that a stable flow of residues at P&P mills creates a solid base for retrofitting. New innovative bio-based products would allow widening the companies' product portfolios and creating new businesses. Also, European Union's (EU) legislation drives towards advanced biofuels production. Wider uptake of the retrofitting technologies requires overcoming the barriers related to uncertainty of economic feasibility and unestablished markets for new products rather than technical immaturity. 


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Effect of biomass fuel ash and bed material on the product gas composition in DFB steam gasification

Fürsatz K, Fuchs J, Benedikt F, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Effect of biomass fuel ash and bed material on the product gas composition in DFB steam gasification. Energy. 2021.219:119650.

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Gasification is a thermochemical process that transforms carbonaceous matter into a gaseous secondary energy carrier, referred to as product gas. This product gas can be used for heat and power generation but also for syntheses. One possible gasification technology suitable for further synthesis is dual fluidised bed (DFB) steam gasification. The H2:CO ratio, which determines the suitability of the product gas for further synthesis, is influenced by the catalytic activity inside the gasification reactor. Eleven DFB steam gasification experiments were performed comparing the catalytic activity for various bed material and fuel combinations. The bed materials used were K-feldspar, fresh and layered olivine, and limestone, and the fuels gasified were softwood, chicken manure, a bark–chicken manure mixture and a bark-straw-chicken manure mixture. The water-gas-shift (WGS) equilibrium deviation was used to evaluate the catalytic activity inside the gasification reactor. It was shown that both the fuel ash and bed material have an effect on the catalytic activity during gasification. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed the initial layer formation for experiments with ash-rich fuels. Isolated WGS experiments were performed to further highlight the influence of bed material, fuel ash and fuel ash layers on the WGS equilibrium.


Conference contributions | 2021

Effects of varying comminution techniques and pyrolysis temperatures on the particle shape of pyrolyzed wood powders and its implications on fluidisation behaviour

Deutsch R, Krammer G, Strasser C, Kienzl N. Effects of varying comminution techniques and pyrolysis temperatures on the particle shape of pyrolyzed wood powders and its implications on fluidisation behaviour. 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021, 26-29 April 2021. 2021.

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Iron production via blast furnace utilizes coal and coke to reduce iron oxides which results in high greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass-based reducing agents may reduce its fossil carbon footprint. Charcoal as bioreducer has been since the beginning of steelmaking. In order to obtain a reducing agent which is appropriately fluidizable for pulverized coal injection (PCI), the most influential powder characteristics must be named and the influence of thermal pre-treatment and comminution technique on particle properties have to be examined. The aim is to show that particle shape design of a grinding product is feasible to a certain extent by varying mill types and how pyrolyzed wood powder properties technically relevant for powder conveying processes can be influenced .


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Emission minimization of a top-lit updraft gasifier cookstove based on experiments and detailed CFD analyses

Scharler R, Archan G, Rakos C, von Berg L, Lello D, Hochenauer C, Anca-Couce A. Emission minimization of a top-lit updraft gasifier cookstove based on experiments and detailed CFD analyses. Energy Conversion and Management. 2021.247:114755.

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Around 2.7 billion people worldwide have no access to clean cooking equipment, which leads to major health problems due to high emissions of unburned products (VOC, CO and soot). A top-lit updraft gasifier cookstove with forced draft was identified as the technology with the highest potential for reducing harmful emissions from incomplete combustion in simple cookstoves. The basic variant of the stove was equipped with a fan for efficient mixing of product gas with air and fired with pellets to increase the energy density of low-grade residues. The development was conducted based on water boiling test experiments for wood and rice hull pellets and targeted CFD simulations of flow, heat transfer and gas phase combustion with a comprehensive description of the reaction kinetics, which were validated by the experiments. Emphasis was put on the reduction of CO emissions as an indicator for the burnout quality of the flue gas. The optimisation was carried out in several steps, the main improvements being the design of a sufficiently large post-combustion chamber and a supply of an appropriate amount of primary air for a more stable fuel gasification. The experiments showed CO emissions <0.2 g/MJdel for wood and rice hull pellets, which corresponds to a reduction by a factor of about 15 to 20 compared to the basic forced draft stove concept. Furthermore, these values are between 5 and 10 times lower than published water boiling test results of the best available cookstove technologies and are already close to the range of automatic pellet furnaces for domestic heating, which are considered to be the benchmark for the best possible reduction of CO emissions.


Technical Reports | 2021

Endbericht: Heat Pumping system Control (HPC)

Modellbasierte Regelung von Absorptionswärmepump-Anlagen.

Zlabinger S, Wernhart M, Unterberger V, Rieberer R, Gölles M, Rohringer C, Poier H, Halmdienst C, Kemmerzehl C, Otto M. Heat Pumping system Control (HPC). Modellbasierte Regelung von Absorptionswärmepump-Anlagen. FFG, 4. Ausschreibung Energieforschungsprogramm, Projektnummer: 865095. Endbericht. 2021.

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Studien | 2021

Energiespeicher in Österreich

Marktentwicklung 2020

Biermayr P, Aigenbauer St, Enigl M, Fink C, Knabl S, Leonhartsberger K, Matschegg D, Prem E, Strasser C, Wittmann M. Energiespeicher in Österreich Marktentwicklung 2020. 2021

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Experimental evaluation of primary measures for NOX and dust emission reduction in a novel 200 kW multi-fuel biomass boiler

Archan G, Anca-Couce A, Buchmayr M, Hochenauer C, Gruber J, Scharler R. Experimental evaluation of primary measures for NOX and dust emission reduction in a novel 200 kW multi-fuel biomass boiler. June 2021.170:1186-1196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.02.055

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The aim of this work is to utilize various biogenic fuels without ash slagging and to significantly reduce NOX and particulate matter emissions in comparison to modern combustion technologies. For this purpose, a novel small-scale multi-fuel biomass grate furnace technology was developed and experimentally investigated. It employs a low oxygen concentration in the fixed-bed and a double air staging, including the supply of flue gas recirculation. In this way slagging is prevented on the grate, reducing the release of ash-forming volatiles, NOX emissions are minimized in the reduction zone and an efficient flue gas burnout is achieved in the tertiary zone. Wood pellets and chips as well as miscanthus briquettes were investigated.

The measured total particle emissions showed a reduction of 68% for pellets and 70% for wood chips compared to typical small-scale furnaces. Furthermore, a reduction of NOX emissions of 39% for wood chips, 40% for wood pellets and 45% for miscanthus briquettes was achieved compared to typical small-scale furnaces. The experimental parameter study provided fundamental insights into the various mechanisms involved in this novel technology, which is close to market introduction, and proved its high fuel flexibility and great potential for particulate matter and NOX emission reduction.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Fischer-Tropsch products from biomass-derived syngas and renewable hydrogen

Gruber H, Groß P, Rauch R, Reichhold A, Zweiler R, Aichernig C, Müller S, Ataimisch N, Hofbauer H. Fischer-Tropsch products from biomass-derived syngas and renewable hydrogen. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2021.11(6):2281-2292

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Global climate change will make it necessary to transform transportation and mobility away from what we know now towards a sustainable, flexible, and dynamic sector. A severe reduction of fossil-based CO2 emissions in all energy-consuming sectors will be necessary to keep global warming below 2 °C above preindustrial levels. Thus, long-distance transportation will have to increase the share of renewable fuel consumed until alternative powertrains are ready to step in. Additionally, it is predicted that the share of renewables in the power generation sector grows worldwide. Thus, the need to store the excess electricity produced by fluctuating renewable sources is going to grow alike. The “Winddiesel” technology enables the integrative use of excess electricity combined with biomass-based fuel production. Surplus electricity can be converted to H2 via electrolysis in a first step. The fluctuating H2 source is combined with biomass-derived CO-rich syngas from gasification of lignocellulosic feedstock. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis converts the syngas to renewable hydrocarbons. This research article summarizes the experiments performed and presents new insights regarding the effects of load changes on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Long-term campaigns were carried out, and performance-indicating parameters such as per-pass CO conversion, product distribution, and productivity were evaluated. The experiments showed that integrating renewable H2 into a biomass-to-liquid Fischer-Tropsch concept could increase the productivity while product distribution remains almost the same. Furthermore, the economic assessment performed indicates good preconditions towards commercialization of the proposed system.


Conference contributions | 2021

Flue gas recirculation during poultry litter combustion in a fixed bed lab-scale batch reactor

Katsaros G, Sommersacher P, Retschitzegger S, Kienzl N, Pandey DS. Flue gas recirculation during poultry litter combustion in a fixed bed lab-scale batch reactor. 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021, 26-29 April 2021. 2021

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This study focuses on the combustion behaviour of poultry litter which was experimentally studied in a fixed bed lab-scale reactor. The combustion experiments not only provided useful insights pertaining to the thermal decomposition of poultry litter over time, release of main gaseous compounds and nitrogen (N) species, but also the release of elements found initially in the ash composition. The main gaseous species were released during the devolatilisation phase, whereas Ammonia (NH3) was found to be the most abundant compound of N-gaseous species (45%) followed by nitrogen oxide (NO) with a fraction of ~10%. Alkali metals showed moderate release rates, whilst Chlorine (Cl) was observed to have the highest one (90%) of the ash forming elements, depicting the high volatility of the specific compound.


Other Publications | 2021

Gasification - a key technology in the energy transition and for the circular economy

Martini S. Gasification - a key technology in the energy transition and for the circular economy. IEA Bioenergy Task33 Meeting. December 2021.

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Other publication | 2021

Gemeinsam richtig heizen - Video

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Other publication | 2021

HPC - Workshop

Experimentelle Analyse, Simulation und Regelung von Absorptionswärmepumpen/-kältemaschinen

Zlabinger S, Unterberger V, Gölles M, Wernhart M, Rieberer R, Poier H, Rohinger C, Kemmerzehl C, Halmdienst C. Experimentelle Analyse, Simulation und Regelung von Absorptionswärmepumpen/-kältemaschinen. Online-Workshop im Rahmen des FFG-Projekts HPC ("4. Ausschreibung Energieforschung 2017") am 09.04.2021.

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Durch die vermehrte Einbindung von Absorptionswärmepumpen und -kältemaschinen in bestehende und zukünftige Energiesysteme des Kälte- und Wärmesektors kann der Anteil erneuerbarer Energien deutlich gesteigert werden. Um dies erfolgreich umsetzen zu können, müssen die Betriebsstrategien und Regelungen dieser Systeme jedoch in der Lage sein, auch mit dynamischen und stark variierenden Betriebsbedingungen umgehen zu können. Dieser Herausforderung hat sich das von der FFG geförderte Projekt HPC – heat pumping system control gewidmet. Im Rahmen dieses Workshops sollen die Ergebnisse und deren Nutzen für die Praxis präsentiert und diskutiert werden.


Conference Papers | 2021

Increasing economic efficiency of cultivating microalgae by recycling process water

Neubauer M, Bauer L, Lanschützer E, Cayir P, Sonnleitner A, Meixner K, Fritz I, Drosg B. Increasing economic efficiency of cultivating microalgae by recycling process water. 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021, 26-29 April 2021. 2021.

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This abstract gives a glimpse of the output revealed in a project focusing on recycling used medium from algae cultivation. In close cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, the Institute of Microbiology - The Czech Academy of Sciences as well as the algae biomass production company Ecoduna GmbH, it was possible to target industrial needs with scientific research approaches.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Influence of solvent temperature and type on naphthalene solubility for tar removal in a dual fluidized bed biomass gasification process

Tonpakdee P, Hongrapipat J, Siriwongrungson V, Rauch R, Pang S, Thaveesri J, Messner M, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Influence of solvent temperature and type on naphthalene solubility for tar removal in a dual fluidized bed biomass gasification process. Current Applied Science and Technology. 2021.21(4):751-76.

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Tar condensation is a cause of blockage in downstream application of the gasification process. An oil scrubber is considered as an effective method for tar removal. In this research, the naphthalene solubility in different local Thai oils and water was investigated in a laboratory-scale test-rig. The solubility value was conducted at 30, 50, 70, and 80°C. Biodiesels investigated were rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and two different palm methyl esters (PME 1 and PME 2). Furthermore, vegetable oils including sunflower oil, rice bran oil, crude palm oil, and refined palm oil were examined. The results showed that higher temperature enhanced naphthalene solubility in all types of investigated oils. Biodiesel has the highest value of naphthalene solubility. All scrubbing oils have similar naphthalene solubility trends at the temperature range of 50-80°C in the order of RME > PME 1 > PME 2 > diesel > sunflower oil > refined palm oil > rice bran oil > crude palm oil. Based on these experimental investigations, PME 1 has a naphthalene solubility value similar to RME. Therefore, PME 1 has been selected to be tested as scrubbing solvent in the 1 MWel prototype dual fluidized gasifier located in Nong Bua district, Nakhon Sawan province, Thailand.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Innovative laboratory unit for pre-testing of oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

Fleiss B, Fuchs J, Penthor S, Arlt S, Pachler R, Müller S, Hofbauer H. Innovative laboratory unit for pre-testing of oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2021

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Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a highly efficient CO2 separation technology with no direct contact between combustion air and fuel. A metal oxide is used as an oxygen carrier (OC) and acts in a dual fluidized bed as a separation tool and supplies the fuel with oxygen, which as an oxidation medium causes combustion to CO2 and H2O. The use of solid fuels, especially biomass, is the focus of current investigations. The OC plays a key role, because it must meet special requirements for solid fuels, which are different to gaseous fuels. The ash content, special reaction mechanisms, and increased abrasion make research into new types of OC essential. Preliminary testing of OC before their use in larger plants regarding their suitability is recommended. For this reason, this work shows the design and the results of a laboratory reactor, which was planned and built for fundamental investigation of OC. Designed as a transient fluidized bed, the reactor, equipped with its own fuel conveying system and an in situ solid sampling, is intended to be particularly suitable for cheap and rapid pre-testing of OC materials. During the tests, it was shown that the sampling device enables non-selective sampling. Different OC were tested under various operating conditions, and their ability to convert different fuels could be quantified. The results indicate that OC can be sufficiently investigated to recommend operation in larger plants.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Integration of dual fluidized bed steam gasification into the pulp and paper industry

Kuba M, Benedikt F, Fürsatz K, Fuchs J, Demuth M, Aichernig C, Arpa L, Hofbauer H. Integration of dual fluidized bed steam gasification into the pulp and paper industry. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 23 Dec 2021

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The pulp and paper industry represents an industry sector which is characterised by its already high degree of sustainability. Biomass is a renewable input material, and typically highly developed recovery cycles minimise the loss of chemicals used in the pulping process. However, certain parts of the recovery cycle are still operated on fossil fuels. This study deals with the substitution of the fossil-based gaseous fuel with product gas from biomass gasification.

Gasification experiments have shown that bark available at pulp and paper mills is suitable to produce a product gas via dual fluidised bed steam gasification as a promising substitute for natural gas. Based on the comparison of process layouts regarding the separation of non-process elements, separation efficiency is derived for different setups. To ensure operational security of the chemical recovery cycle, comprehensive gas cleaning including heat exchangers, a particle filter, and a liquid scrubber unit is advised. The gas flow of fuel gas into the gas burner is increased as the heating value of the product gas is accordingly lower in comparison to natural gas. Furthermore, adaptions of the gas burner might be necessary to address the earlier ignition of the H2-rich product gas compared to natural gas.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Integration of market aspects into material development: approach and exemplification for a wood composite

Fuhrmann M, Schwarzbauer P, Hesser F. Integration of market aspects into material development: approach and exemplification for a wood composite. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-021-01697-z

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Due to a variety of applications and complex requirements in specific fields of use, the number of different materials is increasing. Thereof, the majority fails at the stage of market introduction, because the focus of material development is mostly on technical aspects, while market aspects are often neglected. One possible way of market introduction is material substitution. Thereby, requirements a material needs to meet are well known. However, a certain market focus on material development would be helpful regarding the final goal of the customer satisfaction. Therefore, this study presents an approach, which aims at guiding the technical material development and thus starts one stage earlier than most other studies, which focus on market introduction. A multi-stage approach helps integrating market aspects into material development, using the following methods: (1) method of Ashby to compare materials from a technical point of view and identify theoretically substitutable material groups and potential applications, (2) market data research and comparison for the identification of attractive markets, (3) method of Kano to classify material requirements and prioritize the optimization of material properties to satisfy the customers in selected markets. This approach is showcased and discussed using the example of an innovative wood composite under development, where it represented an aiding tool for guiding the further material development. An adaptation to any other material is possible at each of the three stages, although there are some limitations, which have to be considered, for example the selection of technical properties for the material comparison.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Interactions of Olivine and Silica Sand with Potassium- or Silicon-Rich Agricultural Residues under Combustion, Steam Gasification, and CO2 Gasification

Li G, Nathan GJ, Kuba M, Ashman PJ, Saw WL. Interactions of Olivine and Silica Sand with Potassium- or Silicon-Rich Agricultural Residues under Combustion, Steam Gasification, and CO2 Gasification. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 6 October 2021. 60 (39):14354 - 14369.

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Interactions between olivine or silica sand and potassium (K)-rich grape marc or silicon (Si)-rich wheat straw were studied in a fixed-bed reactor under combustion, steam, or a CO2 gasification atmosphere. This study focused on the effects of atmosphere composition, feedstock, and bed material type on the thermochemical aspects of agglomeration. The agglomeration extent of grape marc with olivine as the bed material under air and steam atmospheres is significantly less than with silica sand. The presence of CO2, compared to that of O2 or steam, was found to promote the reaction between K and olivine by facilitating the production of reactive silica from olivine carbonization. The use of olivine promotes the release of K by more than 10% compared with silica. No significant differences were observed in the agglomeration extent of wheat straw in its interaction with either olivine or silica sand. Nevertheless, olivine alters the agglomeration mechanism of wheat straw to become “melting-induced” from “coating-induced” in a silica bed.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Interactions of Olivine and Silica Sand with Potassium- or Silicon-Rich Agricultural Residues under Combustion, Steam Gasification, and CO2Gasification

Li G, Nathan GJ, Kuba M, Ashman PJ, Saw WL. Interactions of Olivine and Silica Sand with Potassium- or Silicon-Rich Agricultural Residues under Combustion, Steam Gasification, and CO2Gasification. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 2021.60(39):14354-14369.

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Interactions between olivine or silica sand and potassium (K)-rich grape marc or silicon (Si)-rich wheat straw were studied in a fixed-bed reactor under combustion, steam, or a CO2 gasification atmosphere. This study focused on the effects of atmosphere composition, feedstock, and bed material type on the thermochemical aspects of agglomeration. The agglomeration extent of grape marc with olivine as the bed material under air and steam atmospheres is significantly less than with silica sand. The presence of CO2, compared to that of O2 or steam, was found to promote the reaction between K and olivine by facilitating the production of reactive silica from olivine carbonization. The use of olivine promotes the release of K by more than 10% compared with silica. No significant differences were observed in the agglomeration extent of wheat straw in its interaction with either olivine or silica sand. Nevertheless, olivine alters the agglomeration mechanism of wheat straw to become “melting-induced” from “coating-induced” in a silica bed.


Other Publications | 2021

Leitfaden: Energiegemeinschaften im Tourismussektor

Iglar B, Fina B, Jung M, Markotsky-Kolm E, Tölzer T, Zellinger M, Liedtke P, Oberbauer C. Leitfaden: Energiegemeinschaften im Tourismussektor. Klima- und Energiefonds. December 2021.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Mixed-integer linear programming based optimization strategies for renewable energy communities

Cosic A, Stadler M, Mansoor M, Zellinger M. Mixed-integer linear programming based optimization strategies for renewable energy communities. Energy. 237.2021

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Local and renewable energy communities show a high potential for the efficient use of distributed energy technologies at regional levels according to the Clean Energy Package of the European Union. However, until now there are only limited possibilities to bring such energy communities into reality because of several limitation factors. Challenges are already encountered during the planning phase since a large number of decision variables have to be considered depending on the number and type of community participants and distributed technologies. This paper overcomes these challenges by establishing a mixed-integer linear programming based optimal planning approach for renewable energy communities. A real case study is analyzed by creating an energy community testbed with a leading energy service provider in Austria. The case study considers nine energy community members of a municipality in Austria, distributed photovoltaic systems, energy storage systems, different electricity tariff scenarios and market signals including feed-in tariffs. The key results indicate that renewable energy communities can significantly reduce the total energy costs by 15% and total carbon dioxide emissions by 34% through an optimal selection and operation of the energy technologies. In all the optimization scenarios considered, each community participant can benefit both economically and ecologically.