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Conference contributions | 2019

Technology mapping of market-available small-scale combustion appliances

Feldmeier S, Wopienka E, Schwarz M, Pfeifer C. Technology mapping of market-available small-scale combustion appliances. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). 2019.

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A broad range of different biomass combustion appliances dedicated to domestic heating is available on the market. Depending on the technology the impact of varying properties of biomass fuels on slag formation and emission release may vary. Aspects as the design of the grate section and the selection of individual boiler components as well as operational settings determine the applicability of biomass fuels. Apart from fuel properties also the fuel load on the grate, residence time, air distribution and geometry of grate and combustion chamber affect the degree of slag formation and emission release. Technology indexes determined by means of constructional measures enable a systematic comparison and – in a further step – an assessment of combustion appliances. In this work specific technology indexes were specified and applied to compare technological aspects, which will prospectively allow investigating the technological influence on the combustion performance.


Conference contributions | 2019

Thermal Trouble: Challenges in Optimization and Evaluation of Thermal Energy Systems

Lichtenegger K, Unterberger V, Stadler M, Zellinger M, Carreras F, Moser A. Thermal Trouble: Challenges in Optimization and Evaluation of Thermal Energy Systems. IAPE 2019 : International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (oral presentation). March 2019.

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Conference contributions | 2019

Time-dependent catalytic activation of inactive k-feldspar by layer formation during fluidized bed conversion with residual fuels

Wagner C, Hammerl C, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Time-dependent catalytic activation of inactive k-feldspar by layer formation during fluidized bed conversion with residual fuels. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). May 2019.

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Olivine is currently used as bed material in dual fluidized bed steam gasification due to its catalytic activity towards the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction and tar reforming. However, olivine contains traces of heavy metals which necessitate an expensive disposal of the accruing ash. The study of alternative bed materials for DFB steam gasification is therefore of major importance. The activity of a bed material is one important factor when classifying its suitability. Several alternative bed materials like quartz and K-feldspar are non-active when fresh but become activated during operation by interaction with the ash by forming layers. The focus of this work was therefore to quantify the initial activation of K-feldspar over the first operational hours as exemplary inactive bed material. Bed material samples from fluidized bed combustion were collected during operation. The fuels used were bark, chicken manure and a bark/chicken manure mixture. The obtained samples were sieved to 200 – 250 µm and tested in a micro-scale test-rig regarding the WGS reaction. A time-dependent activation of K-feldspar was observed marking a first step in better understanding the activation of bed materials.


Conference contributions | 2019

Towards the in house production of enzymes using processing waste

Weiss R, Nyanhongo G, Ortner M, Guebitz G.Towards the in house production of enzymes using processing waste. 15th International Conference on Renewable Resources and Biorefineries, Toulouse, FRANCE. June 2019.

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Conference contributions | 2020

"Long-term verification of a new modular method for CO-lambda-optimisation"

Zemann C, Hammer F, Gölles M. Long-term verification of a new modular method for CO-lambda-optimisation. 6th Central European Biomass Conference CEBC 2020 (Oral Presentation). 2020.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

A MILP-based modular energy management system for urban multi-energy systems: Performance and sensitivity analysis

Moser AGC, Muschick D, Gölles M, Nageler PJ, Schranzhofer H, Mach T et al. A MILP-based modular energy management system for urban multi-energy systems: Performance and sensitivity analysis. Applied Energy. 2020;2020(261). 114342.

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The continuous increase of (volatile) renewable energy production and the coupling of different energy sectors such as heating, cooling and electricity have significantly increased the complexity of urban energy systems. Such multi-energy systems (MES) can be operated more efficiently with the aid of optimization-based energy management systems (EMS). However, most existing EMS are tailor-made for one specific system or class of systems, i.e. are not generally applicable. Furthermore, only limited information on the actual savings potential of the usage of an EMS under realistic conditions is available. Therefore, this paper presents a novel modular modeling approach for an EMS for urban MES, which also enables the modeling of complex system configurations. To assess the actual savings potential of the proposed EMS, a comprehensive case study was carried out. In the course of this the influence of different user behavior, changing climatic conditions and forecast errors on the savings potential was analyzed by comparing it with a conventional control strategy. The results showed that using the proposed EMS in conjunction with supplementary system components (thermal energy storage and battery) an annual cost savings potential of between 3 and 6% could be achieved.


Conference contributions | 2020

A modular energy management system for multi-energy systems

Muschick D, Kaisermayer V, Moser A, Gölles M. A modular energy management system for multi-energy systems. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Scientific Journals | 2020

A novel production route and process optimization of biomass-derived paraffin wax for pharmaceutical application

Gruber H, Lindner L, Arlt S, Reichhold A, Rauch R, Weber G, Trimbach J, Hofbauer H. A novel production route and process optimization of biomass-derived paraffin wax for pharmaceutical application. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020;275:124135

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The Biomass to Liquid (BtL) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) route converts lignocellulosic feedstock to renewable hydrocarbons. This, paper shows a novel production route for biomass-derived synthetic paraffin wax via gasification of lignocellulosic feedstock, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and hydrofining. The Fischer-Tropsch wax was fractionated, refined and analyzed with respect to compliance to commercial standards. The fractioned paraffin waxes were hydrofined using a commercial sulfide NiMo–Al2O3 catalyst and a trickle bed reactor. A parametric variation was performed to optimize the hydrofining process. It was shown that the produced medium-melt paraffin wax could fulfill the requirements for “Paraffinum solidum” defined by the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur). The high-melt wax fraction showed potential to be used as food packaging additive. Furthermore, the renewable wax was analyzed regarding PAH content and it was shown that the hydrofined wax was quasi-PAH-free.


Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced biomass CCHP (BIO-CCHP) based on gasification, SOFC and cooling machines

Lagler J, Martini S. Advanced biomass CCHP (BIO-CCHP) based on gasification, SOFC and cooling machines. 6th Central European Biomass Conferenc, 2020, Graz.

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Conference Papers | 2020

Advanced modular process analysis tool for biomass-based Chemical Looping systems

Steiner T, Schulze K, Scharler R. Advanced modular process analysis tool for biomass-based Chemical Looping systems. 3RD DOCTORAL COLLOQUIUM BIOENERGY. 2020.

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In order to limit global warming to 1.5 °C compared to the pre-industrial temperature level, zero net CO2 emissions are needed on a global scale until 2050. A Chemical Looping (CL) process represents a technological system which is CO2-negative when using biomass as fuel and thus can substantially contribute to this target. In principle, the process uses a metal oxide as oxygen carrier material (OC) which is cyclically oxidized by air or steam and reduced by the fuel. Without air as the direct oxygen source for fuel conversion, high calorific product gases or pure carbon dioxide in case of combustion are obtained after the condensation of water vapor, which can then be stored or further utilized.
Within the funded project ”BIO-LOOP”, different Chemical Looping processes (for example combustion, gasification, hydrogen production) and reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed) are investigated numerically and experimentally. An advanced process analysis tool based on mass and energy balances of the system considered will be presented. It provides data about the specific internal and external streams, process conditions and efficiencies. Within the analysis tool, various independent modular units describe individual process steps, e.g. mixing, chemical reaction or splitting. These components can be adjusted, combined and interconnected according to the flow chart of the system. The process model represents the first step towards a flexible Chemical Looping reactor simulation toolbox to analyze various process scenarios. Emphasis is put on the flexibility regarding the fuels and oxygen carriers, their conversion and possible process variations. The tool developed will support upcoming CFD modeling and further economic considerations.


Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves

Reichert G, Schmidl C. Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves – A Technical Review

Reichert G, Schwabl M, Schmidl C. Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves – A Technical Review. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation) 2020.

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Third party testing of direct heating appliances fueled with pellets has been established in many countries worldwide. The main goals are ensuring operation safety and a minimum level of performance of the products prior to market implementation. This kind of approval procedure for new products requires testing standards, certified testing bodies and a legal framework defining minimum requirements for specified performance parameters which are assessed in the respective standards.

While the overall targets are quite similar for all countries having set-up such procedures, the practical implementation of these targets in the national/international testing standards is remarkably different. This applies to both, the way of operating the appliance during the testing and the measurements performed during the testing.

Furthermore several industries were requested recently to modify their product standards towards more realistic operating conditions. The most famous example is car industry, but this request may also apply to biomass heating systems.

 


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Alkaline Ethanol Oxidation Reaction on Carbon Supported Ternary PdNiBi Nanocatalyst using Modified Instant Reduction Synthesis Method

Cermenek B, Genorio B, Winter T, Wolf S, Connell JG, Roschger M, Letofsky-Papst I, Kienzl N, Bitschnau B, Hacker V. Alkaline Ethanol Oxidation Reaction on Carbon Supported Ternary PdNiBi Nanocatalyst using Modified Instant Reduction Synthesis Method. Electrocatalysis. 2020.11:203-204.

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Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) still lack active and efficient electrocatalysts for the alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). In this work, a new instant reduction synthesis method was developed to prepare carbon supported ternary PdNiBi nanocatalysts with improved EOR activity. Synthesized catalysts were characterized with a variety of structural and compositional analysis techniques in order to correlate their morphology and surface chemistry with electrochemical performance. The modified instant reduction synthesis results in well-dispersed, spherical Pd85Ni10Bi5 nanoparticles on Vulcan XC72R support (Pd85Ni10Bi5/C(II-III)), with sizes ranging from 3.7 ± 0.8 to 4.7 ± 0.7 nm. On the other hand, the common instant reduction synthesis method leads to significantly agglomerated nanoparticles (Pd85Ni10Bi5/C(I)). EOR activity and stability of these three different carbon supported PdNiBi anode catalysts with a nominal atomic ratio of 85:10:5 were probed via cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using the rotating disk electrode method. Pd85Ni10Bi5/C(II) showed the highest electrocatalytic activity (150 mA⋅cm−2; 2678 mA⋅mg−1) with low onset potential (0.207 V) for EOR in alkaline medium, as compared to a commercial Pd/C and to the other synthesized ternary nanocatalysts Pd85Ni10Bi5/C(I) and Pd85Ni10Bi5/C(III). This new synthesis approach provides a new avenue to developing efficient, carbon supported ternary nanocatalysts for future energy conversion devices.


Conference contributions | 2020

Anaerobic Digestion Optimization for Biogas and Biomethane Production

Ionel I, Drosg B. Anaerobic Digestion Optimization for Biogas and Biomethane Production. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (oral presentation) 2020.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale Furnaces

Kienzl N, Margaritis N, Isemin R, Zaychenko V, Strasser C, Kourkoumpas DS, Grammelis P, Klimov D, Larina O, Sytchev G, Mikhalev A. Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2020;275:122882.

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The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of upgraded agricultural biomass feedstock such as torrefied sunflower husks during combustion in small and medium heating applications. Sunflower husk is formed in large quantities at enterprises producing sunflower oil and can be used as biofuel. However, big problems arise due to the low bulk density of husks and the rapid growth of ash deposits on the heating surfaces of boilers. In order to solve these problems, it was proposed to produce pellets from husks, and to subject these pellets to torrefaction. After torrefaction, net calorific value was increased by 29% while the risk of high temperature corrosion of boilers was reduced. Signs of ash softening neither occurred in combustion of raw nor in combustion of torrefied sunflower husk pellets. High aerosol emissions, already present in raw sunflower husk pellets, could not be mitigated by torrefaction. First combustion results at medium scale furnaces indicated that sunflower husk pellets (both raw and torrefied) in a commercial boiler < 400 kW, operated in a mode with low primary zone temperatures (< 850 °C), meet current emission limits. Regarding the future upcoming emission limits according to the European Medium Combustion Plant Directive, additional measures are required in order to comply with the dust limits.


Scientific Journals | 2020

Aqueous phase reforming of pilot-scale Fischer-Tropsch water effluent for sustainable hydrogen production

Zoppi G, Pipitone G, Gruber H, Weber G, Reichhold A, Pirone R, Bensaid S. Aqueous phase reforming of pilot-scale Fischer-Tropsch water effluent for sustainable hydrogen production. Catalysis Today.2020.

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Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis produces an aqueous stream containing light oxygenates as major by-product. The low carbon concentration of the organics makes its thermal recovery unprofitable. Thus, novel processes are needed to utilize this waste carbon content. In this work, the aqueous phase reforming of the wastewater obtained from a 15 kWth Fischer-Tropsch plant was explored as a promising process to produce hydrogen at mild temperatures. The FT product water was firstly characterized and afterward subjected to the reforming at different reaction temperatures and time, using a platinum catalyst supported on activated carbon. It was observed that, besides activity, the selectivity towards hydrogen was favored at higher temperatures; equally, increasing the reaction time allowed to obtain the total conversion of most molecules found in the solution, without decreasing the selectivity and reaching a plateau at 4 hours in the hydrogen productivity. In order to get more insights into the reaction mechanism and product distribution derived from the APR of FT product water, several tests were performed with single compounds, finding characteristic features. The importance of the position of the hydroxyl group in the molecule structure was highlighted, with secondary alcohols more prone to dehydrogenation pathways compared to primary alcohols. Moreover, no interference among the substrates was reported despite the mixture is constituted by several molecules: in fact, the results obtained with the real FT product water were analogous to the linear combination of the single compound tests. Finally, the reuse of the catalyst showed no appreciable deactivation phenomena.


Conference contributions | 2020

BIOCHAR - Reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA

Lagler J, Martini S, Kienzl N, Loder A. BIOCHAR - Reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA. 6th Central European Biomass Conference. 2020. Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Biochar’s reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA

Lagler J, Martini S, Kienzl N, Loder A. Biochar’s reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (poster). 2020.

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During the last years biomass evolved into one of the most important energy sources in Central Europe. Depending on the atmosphere, different types of thermochemical processes can be differentiated: pyrolysis, gasification and combustion, whereas pyrolysis operates without any oxygen in the atmosphere, combustion with the highest ratio of oxygen. Depending on the conversion technology and conversion conditions, different products can be generated: heat, cooling power and electrical power, liquid, gaseous and solid products, such as hydrogen, FT-fuels and biochar.
This work focuses on the valorisation of solid side products of gasification based biomass CHP-systems to increase ecologic and economic benefit. Depending on the conversion process of biomass into producer gas this solid residue consists mainly of ash or of so called biochar with high carbon content. Increasing the amount of biochar leads to a decrease of producer gas, but, with the high market potential of biochar, the economic benefits increase. According to its characteristics (e.g. purity, surface structure) different applications can be addressed and therefore different prices can be achieved. Therefore, extended research on biochar treatment processes and related reaction kinetics of biochar is from crucial importance for the development and optimisation of downstream upgrading processes in order to reach the desired quality of the biochar. In the past, such considerations of utilising side products, like biochar, have not been in the centre of attention during the design phase of gasification reactors. Therefore, the establishment of a finishing-treatment of biochar extracted from a gasification process is under investigation. The focus of this paper lies on the reaction kinetics of biochar activation itself and not the primary material (biomass). In order to derivate correlations between reaction kinetics and atmosphere compositions as well as temperature, experimental test runs are conducted with a Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA) including a steam furnace, which enables studies of mass and energy changes under defined absolute humidity. To produce applicable and reliable data, the limitations of the TGA-test-setup are evaluated with examinations on variations of sample mass, bulk density, particle size distribution and the gas flow. On this basis the test design is defined with certain specifications on the sample preparation and a constant flow velocity. The investigated biochar taken out the gasification process is dried, milled and sieved for the TGA-tests. The main part is devoted to conduct a detailed investigation changing the content of moisture (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as the temperature. The tests are operated at a temperature range between 700 and 1000°C, H2O-concentrations from 0 to 80 vol% and CO2-concentrations also in the range of 0 to 80 vol%. These systematic experimental variations provide the basis for a model of the reaction kinetics of biochar under different boundary conditions. The data is to be evaluated via the generic model including temperature and the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O. Afterwards it will be matched with conventional models (e.g. Arrhenius plot, linear regression models) to determine their suitability. One of those models was used in the paper of Ollero et al, where the influence of CO2 on the reaction kinetics of olive residue was investigated. 1First results show that the reaction rate of biochar is much lower than the one of olive residue. Effects of treatment conditions on the surface properties are investigated by taking out the treated samples after a defined treatment period at a defined mass loss and subsequent surface analysis (BET, pore size/volume distribution) of the samples. In first BET surface analysis, the treatments of biochar with vapour lead to a surface of approximately 1000m²/g whereas the original sample has a BET surface lower than 150m²/g. This finding leads to the question how the reaction kinetics of a treatment process influences the surface change. The obtained data is taken as basis for developing an upgrading process for biochar to a high value product of the gasification process. In order to prove the suitability of TGA-tests for identifying optimised treatment conditions, further research shall demonstrate the correlation of the lab-scale TGA-results with experiences of pilot scale tests.
 


Conference contributions | 2020

Biofuels for transport decarbonisation Country specific assessment for Finland, Sweden, Germany, USA and Brazil

Matschegg D, Biofuels for transport decarbonisation Country specific assessment for Finland, Sweden, Germany, USA and Brazil. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Biological Methanation Processes

Drosg B, Wellinger A. Biological Methanation Processes. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (oral presentation) 2020.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin

Anca-Couce A, Tsekos C, Retschitzegger S, Zimbardi F, Funke A, Banks S, Kraia T, Marques P, Scharler R, de Jong W, Kienzl N. Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin.Fuel.2020;276:118002.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118002

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The large variations found in literature for the activation energy values of main biomass compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in pyrolysis TGA raise concerns regarding the reliability of both the experimental and the modelling side of the performed works. In this work, an international round robin has been conducted by 7 partners who performed TGA pyrolysis experiments of pure cellulose and beech wood at several heating rates. Deviations of around 20 – 30 kJ/mol were obtained in the activation energies of cellulose, hemicellulose and conversions up to 0.9 with beech wood when considering all experiments. The following method was employed to derive reliable kinetics: to first ensure that pure cellulose pyrolysis experiments from literature can be accurately reproduced, and then to conduct experiments at different heating rates and evaluate them with isoconversional methods to detect experiments that are outliers and to validate the reliability of the derived kinetics and employed reaction models with a fitting routine. The deviations in the activation energy values for the cases that followed this method, after disregarding other cases, were of 10 kJ/mol or lower, except for lignin and very high conversions. This method is therefore proposed in order to improve the consistency of data acquisition and kinetic analysis of TGA for biomass pyrolysis in literature, reducing the reported variability.


Conference contributions | 2020

Challenges and recent results in microalgae research

Meixner K. Challenges and recent results in microalgae research. 6th Central european biomass conference, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

CleanAir by biomass

Sturmlechner R, Stressler H, Golicza L, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Kelz J. CleanAir by biomass. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Peer-reviewed publications | 2020

Combined influence of inorganics and transport limitations on the pyrolytic behaviour of woody biomass

Almuina-Villar H, Sommersacher P, Retschitzegger S, Anca-Couce A, Dieguez-Alonso A. Combined influence of inorganics and transport limitations on the pyrolytic behaviour of woody biomass. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 2020.80:73-78

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A deeper understanding and quantification on the influence of inorganic species on the pyrolysis process, combined with the presence of heterogeneous secondary reactions, is pursued in this study. Both chemical controlled and transport limited regimes are considered. The former is achieved in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) with fine milled biomass in the mg range, while the latter is investigated in a particle level reactor with spherical particles of different sizes. To account for the influence of inorganics, wood particles were washed and doped with KCl aqueous solutions, resulting in K concentrations in the final wood of around 0.5% and 5% on dry basis. Gas species and condensable volatiles were measured online with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The removal of inorganic species delayed the pyrolysis reaction to higher temperatures and lowered char yields. The addition of inorganics (K) shifted the devolatilization process to lower temperatures, increased char and water yields, and reduced CO production among others. Higher heating rates and temperatures resulted in lower char, water, and light condensable yields, but significantly higher CH4 and other light hydrocarbons, as well as CO. The increase in these yields can be attributed, at least in part, to the gas phase cracking reactions of the produced volatiles. Larger particle size increased the formation of char, CH4 and other light hydrocarbons, and light condensables for low and high pyrolysis temperatures, while reduced the release of CO2 and H2O. This novel data set allows to quantify the influence of each parameter and can be used as basis for the development of detailed pyrolysis models which can include both the influence of inorganics and transport limitations when coupled into particle models.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of energy generation from waste wood and forest residues: The effect of resource-efficient additives

Corona B, Shen L, Sommersacher P, Junginger M. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of energy generation from waste wood and forest residues: The effect of resource-efficient additives. Journal of Cleaner Production 2020. 259:120948.

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Combustion of waste wood can cause slagging, fouling and corrosion which lead to boiler failure, affecting the energy efficiency and the lifetime of the power plant. Additivation with mineral and sulfur containing additives during waste wood combustion could potentially reduce these problems. This study aims at understanding the environmental impacts of using additives to improve the operational performance of waste wood combustion. The environmental profiles of four energy plants (producing heat and/or power), located in different European countries (Poland, Austria, Sweden and Germany), were investigated through a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA). The four energy plants are all fueled by waste wood and/or residues. This analysis explored the influences of applying different additives strategies in the four power plants, different wood fuel mixes and resulting direct emissions, to the total life cycle environmental impacts of heat and power generated. The impacts on climate change, acidification, particulate matter, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity and cumulative energy demand were calculated, considering 1 GJ of exergy as functional unit. Primary data for the operation without additives were collected from the power plant operators, and emission data for the additives scenarios were collected from onsite measurements. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the expected increase of energy efficiency. The analysis indicated that the use of gypsum waste, halloysite and coal fly ash decreases the environmental impacts of heat and electricity produced (average of 12% decrease in all impacts studied, and a maximum decrease of 121%). The decrease of impacts is mainly a consequence of the increase of energy generation that avoids the use of more polluting marginal technologies. However, impacts on acidification may increase (up to 120% increase) under the absence of appropriate flue gas cleaning systems. Halloysite was the additive presenting the highest benefits.