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Contributions to trade journals | 2015

Experimental and modeling study of hydrogen production from catalytic steam reforming of methane mixture with hydrogen sulfide

Sadooghi P, Rauch R. Experimental and modeling study of hydrogen production from catalytic steam reforming of methane mixture with hydrogen sulfide. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2015;40(33):10418-10426.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions

Carlon E, Verma VK, Schwarz M, Golicza L, Prada A, Baratieri M, et al. Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions. Appl Energy. 2015;138:505-16.

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Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS "Type 869", has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12. kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler's stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the fuel consumption was predicted within a 10% deviation from the experimental values. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Conference contributions | 2015

Forecasting the Pellet Boiler Stock in Austria until 2030 and Assessing the Potential to Reduce GHG Emissions and Substitute Fossil Fuels

Karner K, Schmid E, Strasser C, Kristöfel C, Enigl M. Forecasting the Pellet Boiler Stock in Austria until 2030 and Assessing the Potential to Reduce GHG Emissions and Substitute Fossil Fuels, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2015

Heat pump enhanced heat recovery from flue gas of wood chips combustion

Hebenstreit B, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Kronberger B, Gappmayr B, Gautsch H, Lundgren J, Toffolo A. Heat pump enhanced heat recovery from flue gas of wood chips combustion, INFUB 10th European Conference on Industrial Furnace and Boilers 2015, 7th-10th of April 2015, Porto, Portugal.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2015

Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas

Chianese, S, Loipersböck J, Malits M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Molino A, Musmarra D. Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas. Fuel Processing Technology. 2015;132:39-48.

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The high temperature water gas shift reaction (HTS) over an iron/chromium (Fe/Cr) industrial catalyst was investigated in a pilot scale plant consisting of two fixed-bed reactors arranged in series and a biomass-derived tar-rich synthesis gas was used as a feed-stream. CO conversion and selectivity for the water gas shift reaction were evaluated through parameter variation. Four dry gas hourly space velocities (GHSv) and two steam to dry synthesis gas ratios (H2O/SGd) equal to 52% v/v and 60% v/v were investigated at temperatures (T) of 350–450 °C. CO conversion was investigated by varying H2S concentration 180–540 ppmv (dry basis) at a temperature of 425 °C, considering two GHSVd. The highest CO conversion (~ 83%) was observed in the basis case at 60% v/v H2O/SGd, and 450 °C. The catalyst appeared to be resistant to sulfur poisoning deactivation, and achieved 48% CO conversion at the maximum H2S concentration used.


Contributions to trade journals | 2015

Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas

Chianese S, Loipersböck J, Malits M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Molino A, et al. Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas. Fuel Process Technol 2015;132:39-48.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Implementation of a firebed cooling device and its influence on emissions and combustion parameters at a residential wood pellet boiler

Gehrig M, Pelz SK, Jaeger D, Hofmeister G, Groll A, Thorwarth H, Haslinger W. Implementation of a firebed cooling device and its influence on emissions and combustion parameters at a residential wood pellet boiler. Applied Energy. 01 December 2015;159: 310-316.

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This study investigates the general concept of reduced firebed temperatures in residential wood pellet boilers. Residential wood pellet boiler development is more and more concerned with inorganic aerosols characterized by a temperature-dependent release from the firebed. Hence, different concepts are applied aiming to reduce firebed temperatures. Unfortunately, these concepts influence not only firebed temperatures, but also other important parameters like air flow rates which may cause unwanted side effects with respect to combustion quality or efficiency. Thus, a new approach was developed solely affecting firebed temperature by implementing a water-based firebed cooling in a 12 kW underfeed pellet boiler. The effectiveness of the cooling was monitored by comprehensive temperature measurement in the firebed. The cooling capacity ranged from 0.4 kW to 0.5 kW resulted in a significant decrease of firebed temperatures. Gaseous emissions remain stable showing no significant changes in major components (O2, CO2, NOx). Furthermore, CO emissions were even reduced significantly by the activated cooling, which was supposedly caused by a stabilized devolatilization due to the firebed cooling. Moreover, the temperature-dependent release of aerosol forming elements was influenced at activated firebed cooling, which is proved by a decrease of 17 wt% of dust (Total Suspended Particles; TSP). At the same time the gaseous emissions of HCl increase, supposedly by a reduced potassium release from the firebed to the gas phase and a subsequently different particle formation. The general concept of reduced firebed temperatures proved to be successful decreasing overall aerosol emissions without impacting combustion quality.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Influence of bed material coatings on the water-gas-shift reaction and steam reforming of toluene as tar model compound of biomass gasification

Kuba M, Havlik F, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Influence of bed material coatings on the water-gas-shift reaction and steam reforming of toluene as tar model compound of biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy. 7 August 2015;89:40-49

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A promising technology replacing fossil energy carriers for the production of electricity, heat, fuels for transportation and synthetic chemicals is steam gasification of biomass in a dual fluid bed (DFB). The principle of this technology is the separation into a gasification and a combustion reactor. Bed material, nowadays olivine, circulates between them, and has two functions. It acts as a heat carrier from the combustion to the gasification zone and as catalyst regarding gasification reactions. Today, an alternative to olivine does yet not exist.

In this work, experiments in a lab-scale test rig were performed investigating the catalytic activity of different fresh and used bed materials, such as olivine and quartz. The enhancement of the catalytic activity due to particle coatings was tested regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and steam reforming of toluene. Calcite is known as an active material in this respect and is therefore used as a benchmark substance.

Experiments revealed a correlation between the catalytic activity of bed particle coatings towards both the water-gas-shift reaction and the reduction of toluene by steam reforming. Results showed bed material particles with a calcium (Ca)-rich layer achieve satisfactory conversion of carbon monoxide and reduction of toluene. Furthermore, a qualitative comparison regarding hydrogen production relative to the benchmark material CaO is given for the water-gas-shift and steam reforming of toluene and ethene - used as model substance for lighter hydrocarbons. These results are the basis for further research on the catalytic properties of potential bed materials for DFB gasification of biomass.


Contributions to trade journals | 2015

Influence of ethylene on the formation of mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst using biomass-derived synthesis gas

Weber G, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Influence of ethylene on the formation of mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst using biomass-derived synthesis gas. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2015;5(1):85-94.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Innovative room heating technologies

Schmidl C. Innovative room heating technologies, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2015

Integration of Oxidative Honeycomb Catalysts in Firewood Stoves - Perfomance Analysis, Safety Aspects and Long Term Durability

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Haslinger W. Integration of Oxidative Honeycomb Catalysts in Firewood Stoves - Perfomance Analysis, Safety Aspects and Long Term Durability, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Investigation of the corrosion behaviour of 13CrMo4-5 for biomass fired boilers with coupled online corrosion and deposit probe measurements

Gruber T, Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Investigation of the corrosion behaviour of 13CrMo4-5 for biomass fired boilers with coupled online corrosion and deposit probe measurements. Fuel. 2015;144:15-24.

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High-temperature corrosion in biomass fired boilers is still an insufficiently explored phenomenon which causes unscheduled plant shutdowns and hence, economical problems. To investigate the high-temperature corrosion and deposit formation behaviour of superheater tube bundles, online corrosion probe as well as deposit probe measurements have been carried out in a specially designed fixed bed/drop tube reactor in order to simulate a superheater boiler tube under well-controlled conditions. The investigated boiler steel 13CrMo4-5 is commonly used as steel for superheater tube bundles in biomass fired boilers. Forest wood chips and quality sorted waste wood (A1-A2 according to German standards) as relevant fuels have been selected to investigate the influence on the deposit formation and corrosion behaviour. The following influencing parameter variations have been performed during the test campaigns: flue gas temperature between 650 and 880°C, steel temperature between 450 and 550°C and flue gas velocity between 2 and 8 m/s. One focus of the work presented is the detailed investigation of the structure and the chemical composition of the deposits formed as well as of the corrosion products. A further goal of the work presented was the development of an empirical model which can be used within CFD simulations of flow and heat transfer to calculate and evaluate the local corrosion potential of biomass fired plants already at the planning stage. The corrosion probe measurements show a clear dependency on the parameters investigated and the empirical function developed reproduces the measured corrosion behaviour sufficiently accurate. Since the additional calculation time within the CFD simulation is negligible the model represents a helpful tool for plant designers to estimate whether high-temperature corrosion is of relevance for a certain plant or not, when using fuels with similar compositions and the steel 13CrMo4-5. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Conference Papers | 2015

Investigations on the catalytic activity of bed material coating regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the steam reforming of model compounds for lighter and heavier hydrocarbons

Kuba M, Havlik F, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Investigations on the catalytic activity of bed material coating regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the steam reforming of model compounds for lighter and heavier hydrocarbons. 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2015, Vienna, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2015

Life cycle analysis of small scale pellet boilers characterized by high efficiency and low emissions

Monteleone B, Chiesa M, Marzuoli R, Verma VK, Schwarz M, Carlon E, Schmidl C, Ballarin Denti A. Life cycle analysis of small scale pellet boilers characterized by high efficiency and low emissions. Applied Energy. 1 October 2015;155:160-170.

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Conference Papers | 2015

Liquid biofuels from biomass steam gasification

Rauch R. Liquid biofuels from biomass steam gasification. 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, side event Austrian Day (oral presentation). June 2015, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Long-Term Monitoring of Pellet Boilers Installed in Residential Buildings: Efficiency and Operational Behaviour

Carlon E, Schwarz M, Verma VK, Schmidl C, Baratieri M. Long-Term Monitoring of Pellet Boilers Installed in Residential Buildings: Efficiency and Operational Behaviour, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2015

Mathematical model of an absorption based flue gas heat recovery

Hebenstreit B, Lichtenegger K, Schnetzinger R, Höftberger E, Schmidl C, Lundgren J, Toffolo A. Mathematical model of an absorption based flue gas heat recovery, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2015

Mikrobielle Kontamination als Ursache für Fehlgerüche bei der Lagerung von Holzpellets

Pöllinger-Zierler P, Sedlmayer I, Reinisch C, Siegmund B, Wopienka E, Pointner C, Haslinger W. Mikrobielle Kontamination als Ursache für Fehlgerüche bei der Lagerung von Holzpellets, European Pellet Conference 2015, 25th-26th of Feburary 2015, Wels, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Model based control of a biomass fired steam boiler

Zemann C, Unterberger V, Gölles M. Model based control of a biomass fired steam boiler. 19. Steirisches Seminar über Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung. September 2015, Wagna, Austria.

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Contributions at other events | 2015

Modellbildung und Regelung von Biomasse-Feuerungsanlagen

Schörghuber, C. Modellbildung und Regelung von Biomasse-Feuerungsanlagen, Ph.D. Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2015.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Nachhaltige Versorgungs und Wertschöpfungsketten

Strasser C. Nachhaltige Versorgungs und Wertschöpfungsketten, "Biomasse der Zukunft" - Internationale Konferenz auf Schloss Weinzierl 2015, 29th of Januar 2015, Wieselburg, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Natural ventilation measures for CO off-gassing in small pellet storages

Emhofer W, Lichtenegger K, Haslinger W, Sedlmayer I. Natural ventilation measures for CO off-gassing in small pellet storages, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2015, 24th-27th of February 2015, Wels, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2015

Numerical modelling of biomass grate furnaces with a particle based model

Mehrabian R, Shiehnejadhesar A, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Numerical modelling of biomass grate furnaces with a particle based model, INFUB 10th European Conference on Industrial Furnace and Boilers 2015, 7th-10th of April 2015, Porto, Portugal.

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Technical Reports | 2015

Nutrient recovery by biogas digestate processing

Drosg B, Fuchs W, Al Seadi T, Madsen M, Linke B. Nutrient recovery by biogas digestate processing. IEA Bioenergy (2015): 7-11

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Conference contributions | 2015

Operation and Efficiency of a Wood-Pellet Fired 5 KWel Stirling

Aigenbauer S, Schnetzinger R, Höftberger E, Schmidl C, Haslinger W. Operation and Efficiency of a Wood-Pellet Fired 5 KWel Stirling, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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