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Conference contributions | 2014

Active condensation in a 10MW heating plant - measurement results from the first heating season

Hebenstreit B, Höftberger E, Schwabl M, Lundgren J, Toffolo A. Active condensation in a 10MW heating plant - measurement results from the first heating season, 4th Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Acute systemic and lung inflammation in C57Bl/6J mice after intratracheal aspiration of particulate matter from small-scale biomass combustion appliances based on old and modern technologies

Uski OJ, Happo MS, Jalava PI, Brunner T, Kelz J, Obernberger I, Jokiniemi J, Hirvonen M-R. Acute systemic and lung inflammation in C57Bl/6J mice after intratracheal aspiration of particulate matter from small-scale biomass combustion appliances based on old and modern technologies. Inhalation Toxicology. 2012;24(14):952-965.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Acutodesmus obliquus as a benchmark strain for evaluating methane production from microalgae: Influence of different storage and pretreatment methods on biogas yield

Gruber-Brunhumer MR, Jerney J, Zohar E, Nussbaumer M, Hieger C, Bochmann G, Schagerl M, Obbard JP, Fuchs W, Drosg B. Acutodesmus obliquus as a benchmark strain for evaluating methane production from microalgae: Influence of different storage and pretreatment methods on biogas yield. Algal Research. 01 November 2015;12:230-238.

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Conference contributions | 2018

Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Innerhofer P, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers. 5th International Solar District Heating Conference SDH. Graz, Austria: 2018.

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Conference Papers | 2018

Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar Assisted Heating Systems

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar Assisted Heating Systems., Proceeding of Papers Vol1, p170-181 International conference on time series and forecasting, Granada, Spain, September 19-21, 2018.

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Books / Bookchapters | 2019

Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar-Assisted Heating Systems

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar-Assisted Heating Systems. In: Valenzuela O, Rojas F, Pomares H, Rojas I. (eds) Theory and Applications of Time Series Analysis. ITISE 2018. Contributions to Statistics. Springer, Cham. 2019.

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Solar-assisted heating systems use the energy of the sun to supply consumers with renewable heat and can be found all over the world where heating of buildings is necessary. For these systems, both heat production and heat demand are directly related to the weather conditions. In order to optimally plan production, storage, and consumption, forecasts for both the future heat production of the thermal solar collectors as well as the future heat demand of the connected consumers are essential. For this reason, this contribution presents adaptive forecast methods for the solar heat production and the heat demand of consumers using weather forecasts. The developed methods are easy to implement and therefore practically applicable. The final verification of the methods shows good agreement between the predicted values and measurement data from a representative solar-assisted heating system.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Adsorptive Desulfurization: Fast On-Board Regeneration and the Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester on Desulfurization and in Situ Regeneration Performance of a Silver-Based Adsorbent

Neubauer R, Weinlaender C, Kienzl N, Schroettner H, Hochenauer C. Adsorptive Desulfurization: Fast On-Board Regeneration and the Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester on Desulfurization and in Situ Regeneration Performance of a Silver-Based Adsorbent. Energy and Fuels. 16 June 2016;30(6): 5174-5182.

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Adsorptive on-board desulfurization units require a high desulfurization and regeneration performance for a wide range of fuels to keep them small and ensure long maintenance intervals. A novel thermal regeneration strategy was investigated in this work, fulfilling all requirements for in situ on-board regeneration. In this strategy, a temperature-controlled flow rate (TCFR) of air was used to control the temperature inside the adsorber. With this dynamic approach, the regeneration time was reduced significantly in comparison to other thermal regeneration strategies. The novel regeneration strategy was tested using Ag–Al2O3 as an adsorbent to desulfurize a benzothiophen (BT)-enriched road diesel (300 ppmw of total sulfur). A commercial diesel containing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was used to evaluate the fuel flexibility regarding desulfurization and regeneration performance. In the case of 6.63 wt % FAME and 300 ppmw of sulfur, the breakthrough adsorption capacity of sulfur decreased from 1.04 to 0.17 mg/g. In TCFR regeneration experiments, the breakthrough adsorption capacity was restored to over 94% in the case of both fuels. Thereby, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the regenerated adsorbent decreased by only 1.5%, and negligible carbon deposits were detected.


Scientific Journals | 2018

Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels

Neubauer, R, Weinlaender C, Kienzl N, Bitschnau B, Schroettner H, Hochenauer C. Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels. Journal of Power Sources. 1 May 2018, 385: 45-54.

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On-board desulfurization is essential to operate fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APU) with commercial fuels. In this work, both (i) on-board desulfurization and (ii) on-board regeneration performance of Ag-Al2O3 adsorbent is investigated in a comprehensive manner. The herein investigated regeneration strategy uses hot APU off-gas as the regeneration medium and requires no additional reagents, tanks, nor heat exchangers and thus has remarkable advantages in comparison to state-of-the-art regeneration strategies. The results for (i) show high desulfurization performance of Ag-Al2O3 under all relevant operating conditions and specify the influence of individual operation parameters and the combination of them, which have not yet been quantified. The system integrated regeneration strategy (ii) shows excellent regeneration performance recovering 100% of the initial adsorption capacity for all investigated types of fuels and sulfur heterocycles. Even the adsorption capacity of the most challenging dibenzothiophene in terms of regeneration is restored to 100% over 14 cycles of operation. Subsequent material analyses proved the thermal and chemical stability of all relevant adsorption sites under APU off-gas conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time 100% regeneration after adsorption of dibenzothiophene is reported over 14 cycles of operation for thermal regeneration in oxidizing atmospheres.


Conference contributions | 2014

Advanced Biofuels Technologies – R&D in Austria

Bacovsky D, Wörgetter M. Advanced Biofuels Technologies – R&D in Austria, Fuels of the Future 2014, 20th-21st of January 2014, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced biomass CCHP (BIO-CCHP) based on gasification, SOFC and cooling machines

Lagler J, Martini S. Advanced biomass CCHP (BIO-CCHP) based on gasification, SOFC and cooling machines. 6th Central European Biomass Conferenc, 2020, Graz.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation based on tests with a specially designed lab-reactor

Brunner T, Biedermann F, Kanzian W, Evic N, Obernberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterization based on tests with a specially designed lab-scale reactor. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(10):5691-8.

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To examine relevant combustion characteristics of biomass fuels in grate combustion systems, a specially designed lab-scale reactor was developed. On the basis of tests performed with this reactor, information regarding the biomass decomposition behavior, the release of NOx precursor species, the release of ash-forming elements, and first indications concerning ash melting can be evaluated. Within the scope of several projects, the lab-scale reactor system as well as the subsequent evaluation routines have been optimized and tests with a considerable number of different biomass fuels have been performed. These tests comprised a wide variation of different fuels, including conventional wood fuels (beech, spruce, and softwood pellets), bark, wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) (poplar and willow), waste wood, torrefied softwood, agricultural biomass (straw, Miscanthus, maize cobs, and grass pellets), and peat and sewage sludge. The results from the lab-scale reactor tests show that the thermal decomposition behavior and the combustion behavior of different biomass fuels vary considerably. With regard to NOx precursors (NHx, HCN, NO, N2O, and NO2), NH3 and, for chemically untreated wood fuels, also HCN represent the dominant nitrogen species. The conversion rate from N in the fuel to N in NOx precursors varies between 20 and 95% depending upon the fuel and generally decreases with an increasing N content of the fuel. These results gained from the lab-scale reactor tests can be used to derive NOx precursor release models for subsequent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) NOx post-processing. The release of ash-forming vapors also considerably depends upon the fuel used. In general, more than 91% of Cl, more than 71% of S, 1-51% of K, and 1-50% of Na are released to the gas phase. From these data, the potential for aerosol emissions can be estimated, which varies between 18 mg/Nm3 (softwood pellets) and 320 mg/Nm3 (straw) (dry flue gas at 13% O2). Moreover, these results also provide first indications regarding the deposit formation risks associated with a certain biomass fuel. In addition, a good correlation between visually determined ash sintering tendencies and the sintering temperatures of the different fuels (according to ÖNORM CEN/TS 15370-1) could be observed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Conference contributions | 2012

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation based on tests with a specially designed lab-scale reactor

Brunner T, Biedermann F, Kanzian W, Evic N, Obernberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterisation based on tests with a specially designed lab-scale reactor, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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To examine relevant combustion characteristics of biomass fuels in grate combustion systems, a specially designed lab-scale reactor was developed. On the basis of tests performed with this reactor, information regarding the biomass decomposition behavior, the release of NOx precursor species, the release of ash-forming elements, and first indications concerning ash melting can be evaluated. Within the scope of several projects, the lab-scale reactor system as well as the subsequent evaluation routines have been optimized and tests with a considerable number of different biomass fuels have been performed. These tests comprised a wide variation of different fuels, including conventional wood fuels (beech, spruce, and softwood pellets), bark, wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) (poplar and willow), waste wood, torrefied softwood, agricultural biomass (straw, Miscanthus, maize cobs, and grass pellets), and peat and sewage sludge. The results from the lab-scale reactor tests show that the thermal decomposition behavior and the combustion behavior of different biomass fuels vary considerably. With regard to NOx precursors (NH3, HCN, NO, N2O, and NO2), NH3 and, for chemically untreated wood fuels, also HCN represent the dominant nitrogen species. The conversion rate from N in the fuel to N in NOx precursors varies between 20 and 95% depending upon the fuel and generally decreases with an increasing N content of the fuel. These results gained from the lab-scale reactor tests can be used to derive NOx precursor release models for subsequent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) NOx post-processing. The release of ash-forming vapors also considerably depends upon the fuel used. In general, more than 91% of Cl, more than 71% of S, 1–51% of K, and 1–50% of Na are released to the gas phase. From these data, the potential for aerosol emissions can be estimated, which varies between 18 mg/Nm3 (softwood pellets) and 320 mg/Nm3 (straw) (dry flue gas at 13% O2). Moreover, these results also provide first indications regarding the deposit formation risks associated with a certain biomass fuel. In addition, a good correlation between visually determined ash sintering tendencies and the sintering temperatures of the different fuels (according to ÖNORM CEN/TS 15370-1) could be observed.


Conference contributions | 2011

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes

Brunner T, Moradi F, Obenberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler

Schulze K, Scharler R, Telian M, Obernberger I. Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler, Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Generation 2010, 29th of August-3rd of September, Saariselka, Lapland.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Advanced Motor Fuels

Bacovsky D. Advanced Motor Fuels, Eco-Mobility Conference 2012, 11th-12th of December 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves

Reichert G, Schmidl C. Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Brooks L, Meirhofer M, Pomberger R, Curtis A. Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Austria. p 695-698.

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Heterogeneous wastes, which cannot be material-recycled easily are used for energetic utilization. Certain quality criteria need to be met in this context, addressing especially the chlorine content due to the product quality as well as to environmental and safety issues. In regard of current issues in climate policy concerning emission trading, also an increased biogenic content in these waste fractions is desirable. Therefore, experiments with a sensor-based sorting technology at pilot scale as well as large scale have been conducted to analyse the technical feasibility of this technology for its application on heterogeneous wastes to gain products with desired material and quality criteria. The results of pilot scale experiments show that the sensor-based sorting technology is generally technically feasible to gain waste fractions with the required characteristics, if the technology was adjusted to the specific waste stream. Due to restrictions during the large scale experiment a number of further issues need to be addressed in
further experiments to allow for a concluding evaluation of that treatment concept.


Conference contributions | 2011

Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units

Wopienka E. Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2016

Air pollution reduction due to the adoption of high efficiency small scale pellet boilers characterized by low emissions

Chiesa M, Monteleone B, Venuta ML, Maffeis G, Greco S, Cherubini A, Schmidl C, Finco A, Gerosa G, Ballarin Denti A. Air pollution reduction due to the adoption of high efficiency small scale pellet boilers characterized by low emissions. Biomass and Bioenergy. 1 July 2016;90: 262-272.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Air quality management and biomass burning at domestic level

Aigenbauer S, Bachmaier H, Figl F, Hartmann H, Haslinger W et al. Air quality management and biomass burning at domestic level, Progetto Fuoco 2014, 19th-23rd of February 2014, Verona, Italy.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Air staging to reduce emissions from energy crop combustion in small scale applications

Carroll JP, Finnan JM, Biedermann F, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Air staging to reduce emissions from energy crop combustion in small scale applications. Fuel. 2015;155:37-43.

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The results of experimental work to investigate the effects of air staging on emissions from energy crop combustion in small scale applications are presented. Five different biomass fuels (wood, willow, miscanthus, tall fescue and cocksfoot) were combusted in a small scale (35 kW) biomass boiler and three different tests looking at the effects of (1) air ratio in the primary combustion chamber (primary air ratio), (2) temperature in the primary combustion chamber, and (3) overall excess air ratio, on NOx and particulate emissions were conducted. It was shown that by varying the primary air ratio, NOx emission reductions of between 15% (wood) and 30% (Miscanthus) and PM1 reductions of between 16% (cocksfoot) and 26% (wood) were possible. For all fuels, both NOx and particulate emissions were minimised at a primary air ratio of 0.8. Particulate emissions from miscanthus increased with increasing temperature in the primary combustion chamber, NOx emissions from Miscanthus and from willow also increased with temperature. Overall excess air ratio has no effect on emissions as no significant differences were found for any of the fuels. Emissions of particulates and oxides of nitrogen from a wide range of biomass feedstocks can be minimised by optimising the primary air ratio and by maintaining a temperature in the primary combustion chamber of approximately 900 °C.


Scientific Journals | 2019

Ammonia as Promising Fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Experimental Analysis and Performance Evaluation

Stöckl B, Preininger M, Subotic V, Schröttner H, Sommersacher P, Seidl M, Megel S, Hochenauer C. Ammonia as Promising Fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Experimental Analysis and Performance Evaluation. ECS Transactions; The Electrochemical Society 2019.91:1601-1610

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n the course of this study the direct utilization of ammonia in different types of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), such as anode- and electrolyte-supported SOFC, is investigated. Experiments in low fuel utilization, exhibited excellent performance of ammonia in SOFCs, although the power outputs of equivalent hydrogen/nitrogen fuels were not attained due to the incomplete endothermic ammonia decomposition. Next, the single cells were operated under high fuel utilization conditions and methane was added to the humidified ammonia stream, where they showed excellent ammonia- and methane conversions. The stability of the cells used was proven over a period of at least 48 hours with a variety of fuel mixtures. Post mortem scanning electron microscopy analysis of the anode micro-structures indicated nitriding effects of nickel, as microscopic pores and enlargements of the metallic parts occurred. Finally, a long-term test over 1,000 hours was carried out using a ten-layer stack consisting of electrolyte-supported cells.


Conference contributions | 2013

An environmental impact assessment of Romanian wood pellets delivered to Austrian households and converted into heat

Maderthaner E, Ehrig R. An environmental impact assessment of Romanian wood pellets delivered to Austrian households and converted into heat, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications

Kraussler M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Bioresource Technology. August 2017;237: 39-46.

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Conference contributions | 2013

An Experimental Approach for the Production of Pure Hydrogen Based on Wood Gasification

Fail S, Diaz N, Konlechner D, Hackel M, Sanders E, Rauch R, Harasek M, Bosch K, Schwenninger F, Zapletal P, Schee Z, Hofbauer H. An Experimental Approach for the Production of Pure Hydrogen Based on Wood Gasification, International Conference on Polygeneration Strategies (ICPS13) 2013, 3th-5th of September 2013, Vienna, Austria. p 109-117. (peer reviewed)

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