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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

A MILP-based modular energy management system for urban multi-energy systems: Performance and sensitivity analysis

Moser AGC, Muschick D, Gölles M, Nageler PJ, Schranzhofer H, Mach T et al. A MILP-based modular energy management system for urban multi-energy systems: Performance and sensitivity analysis. Applied Energy. 2020;2020(261). 114342.

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The continuous increase of (volatile) renewable energy production and the coupling of different energy sectors such as heating, cooling and electricity have significantly increased the complexity of urban energy systems. Such multi-energy systems (MES) can be operated more efficiently with the aid of optimization-based energy management systems (EMS). However, most existing EMS are tailor-made for one specific system or class of systems, i.e. are not generally applicable. Furthermore, only limited information on the actual savings potential of the usage of an EMS under realistic conditions is available. Therefore, this paper presents a novel modular modeling approach for an EMS for urban MES, which also enables the modeling of complex system configurations. To assess the actual savings potential of the proposed EMS, a comprehensive case study was carried out. In the course of this the influence of different user behavior, changing climatic conditions and forecast errors on the savings potential was analyzed by comparing it with a conventional control strategy. The results showed that using the proposed EMS in conjunction with supplementary system components (thermal energy storage and battery) an annual cost savings potential of between 3 and 6% could be achieved.


Conference contributions | 2020

A modular energy management system for multi-energy systems

Muschick D, Kaisermayer V, Moser A, Gölles M. A modular energy management system for multi-energy systems. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced biomass CCHP (BIO-CCHP) based on gasification, SOFC and cooling machines

Lagler J, Martini S. Advanced biomass CCHP (BIO-CCHP) based on gasification, SOFC and cooling machines. 6th Central European Biomass Conferenc, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves

Reichert G, Schmidl C. Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

BIOCHAR - Reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA

Lagler J, Martini S, Kienzl N, Loder A. BIOCHAR - Reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA. 6th Central European Biomass Conference. 2020. Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Biofuels for transport decarbonisation Country specific assessment for Finland, Sweden, Germany, USA and Brazil

Matschegg D, Biofuels for transport decarbonisation Country specific assessment for Finland, Sweden, Germany, USA and Brazil. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin

Anca-Couce A, Tsekos C, Retschitzegger S, Zimbardi F, Funke A, Banks S, Kraia T, Marques P, Scharler R, de Jong W, Kienzl N. Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin.Fuel.2020;276:118002.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118002

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The large variations found in literature for the activation energy values of main biomass compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in pyrolysis TGA raise concerns regarding the reliability of both the experimental and the modelling side of the performed works. In this work, an international round robin has been conducted by 7 partners who performed TGA pyrolysis experiments of pure cellulose and beech wood at several heating rates. Deviations of around 20 – 30 kJ/mol were obtained in the activation energies of cellulose, hemicellulose and conversions up to 0.9 with beech wood when considering all experiments. The following method was employed to derive reliable kinetics: to first ensure that pure cellulose pyrolysis experiments from literature can be accurately reproduced, and then to conduct experiments at different heating rates and evaluate them with isoconversional methods to detect experiments that are outliers and to validate the reliability of the derived kinetics and employed reaction models with a fitting routine. The deviations in the activation energy values for the cases that followed this method, after disregarding other cases, were of 10 kJ/mol or lower, except for lignin and very high conversions. This method is therefore proposed in order to improve the consistency of data acquisition and kinetic analysis of TGA for biomass pyrolysis in literature, reducing the reported variability.


Conference contributions | 2020

Challenges and recent results in microalgae research

Meixner K. Challenges and recent results in microalgae research. 6th Central european biomass conference, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

CleanAir by biomass

Sturmlechner R, Stressler H, Golicza L, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Kelz J. CleanAir by biomass. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of energy generation from waste wood and forest residues: The effect of resource-efficient additives

Corona B, Shen L, Sommersacher P, Junginger M. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of energy generation from waste wood and forest residues: The effect of resource-efficient additives. Journal of Cleaner Production 2020. 259:120948.

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Combustion of waste wood can cause slagging, fouling and corrosion which lead to boiler failure, affecting the energy efficiency and the lifetime of the power plant. Additivation with mineral and sulfur containing additives during waste wood combustion could potentially reduce these problems. This study aims at understanding the environmental impacts of using additives to improve the operational performance of waste wood combustion. The environmental profiles of four energy plants (producing heat and/or power), located in different European countries (Poland, Austria, Sweden and Germany), were investigated through a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA). The four energy plants are all fueled by waste wood and/or residues. This analysis explored the influences of applying different additives strategies in the four power plants, different wood fuel mixes and resulting direct emissions, to the total life cycle environmental impacts of heat and power generated. The impacts on climate change, acidification, particulate matter, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity and cumulative energy demand were calculated, considering 1 GJ of exergy as functional unit. Primary data for the operation without additives were collected from the power plant operators, and emission data for the additives scenarios were collected from onsite measurements. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the expected increase of energy efficiency. The analysis indicated that the use of gypsum waste, halloysite and coal fly ash decreases the environmental impacts of heat and electricity produced (average of 12% decrease in all impacts studied, and a maximum decrease of 121%). The decrease of impacts is mainly a consequence of the increase of energy generation that avoids the use of more polluting marginal technologies. However, impacts on acidification may increase (up to 120% increase) under the absence of appropriate flue gas cleaning systems. Halloysite was the additive presenting the highest benefits.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Control of biomass grate boilers using internal model control

Schörghuber C, Gölles M, Reichhartinger M, Horn M. Control of Biomass Grate Boilers using Internal Model Control. Control engineering practice. 2020.

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A new model-based control strategy for biomass grate boilers is presented in this paper. Internal model control is used to control four outputs of the plant and to achieve a control structure with fewer control parameters needing to be experimentally tuned. A nonlinear state–space model describing the essential behaviour of the biomass grate boiler is used for controller design. The inverse system dynamics representing the main part of internal model control are designed with the help of this model. In doing so the properties of differentially flat systems are used. Due to a time delayed input, the inverse system is determined only for three input output channels. The stabilization of the inverse system dynamics, however, is a challenging task. A stabilization method with the help of the time delayed input is suggested and a stability analysis is given. The new control strategy has only three parameters to be tuned, representing a major reduction of complexity in comparison to existing model-based approaches. Finally, experimental results of the implemented control strategy on representative biomass grate boiler with a nominal capacity of 180 kW are presented and compared to an existing model-based control strategy based on input output linearization. The experimental evaluation proves that it is possible to operate the biomass boiler in all load ranges with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Decentralized heating grid operation: A comparison of centralized and agent-based optimization

Lichtenegger K, Leitner A, Märzinger T, Mair C, Moser A, Wöss D, Schmidl C, Pröll T. Decentralized heating grid operation: A comparison of centralized and agent-based optimization. Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks. 2020;2020(21).

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Moving towards a sustainable heat supply calls for decentralized and smart heating grid solutions. One promising concept is the decentralized feed-in by consumers equipped with their own small production units (prosumers). Prosumers can provide an added value regarding security of supply, emission reduction and economic welfare, but in order to achieve this, in addition to advanced hydraulic control strategies also superordinate control strategies and appropriate market models become crucial.

In this article we study methods to find a global optimum for the local energy community or at least an acceptable approximation to it. In contrast to standard centralized control approaches, based either on expert rules or mixed integer linear optimization, we adopt an agent-based, decentralized approach that allows for incorporation of nonlinear phenomena. While studied here in small-scale systems, this approach is particularly attractive for larger systems, since with an increasing number of interacting units, the optimization problem becomes more complex and the computational effort for centralized approaches increases dramatically.

The agent-based optimization approach is compared to centralized optimization of the same prosumer-based setting as well as to a purely central setup. The comparison is based on the quality of the optimization solution, the computational effort and the scalability. For the comparison of these three approaches, three different scenarios have been set up and analysed for four seasons. In this analysis, no approach has emerged as clearly superior to the others; thus each of them is justified in certain situations.


Conference contributions | 2020

Detailed investigations of high terpene concetrations in biogas laboratory trials

Knoll L, Sumethberger-Hasinger M, Nussbaumer M, Dalnodar D, Loibner A, Drosg B. Detailed investigations of high terpene concetrations in biogas laboratory trials. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Die Donau - Eine Chance für die Bioenergiebranche?

Dißauer C, Strasser C. Die Donau - Eine Chance für die Bioenergiebranche? 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Other publication | 2020

EVEmBi – Bestimmung von Methanemissionen aus Biogasanlagen und Reduktionsstrategien

Meixner K. EVEmBi – Bestimmung von Methanemissionen aus Biogasanlagen und Reduktionsstrategien. CEBC 2020

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Conference contributions | 2020

GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies

Barroso G, Essl M, Feldmeier S, Mehrabian R, Nussbaumer T, Öhman M, Reiterer T, Schwarz M, Shiehnejad-Hesar A, Wopienka E. GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

How to create value chains from different feedstocks

Enigl M, How to create value chains from different feedstocks. 6th Central Eurpean Biomass Conference, 22-254 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Individual heat management in the living room

Schwabl M. Individual heat management in the living room. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Influence of ash forming elements from biogenous residues on fluidized bed conversion processes

Fürsatz K, Influence of ash forming elements from biogenous residues on fluidized bed conversion processes. 6th Central Eurpean Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Integrating steam gasification into established infrastructure in the pulp and paper industry

Karl T, Integrating steam gasification into established infrastructure in the pulp and paper industry. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience

Sonnleitner A. Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz

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Conference contributions | 2020

Microgrid Lab 100 % - R&D project for decentralized energy supply with biomass and other Distributed energy Resources

Aigenbauer S. Microgrid Lab 100 % - R&D project for decentralized energy supply with biomass and other Distributed energy Resources. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Microgrid Lab 100% Testbed for the development of control algorithms for microgrids

Aigenbauer S, Microgrid Lab 100% Testbed for the development of control algorithms for microgrids. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Model-based control of hydraulic heat distribution systems — Theory and application

Unterberger V, Muschick D, Loidl A, Poms U, Gölles M, Horn M. Model-based control of hydraulic heat distribution systems — Theory and application. Control Engineering Practice. 2020;2020(101).104464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2020.104464

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With the share of renewable energy sources increasing in heating and hot water applications, the role of hydraulic heat distribution systems is becoming more and more important. This is due to the fact that in order to compensate for the often fluctuating behaviour of the renewables a flexible heat transfer must be ensured by these distribution systems while also taking the optimal operating conditions (mass flow, temperature) of the individual components into consideration. This demanding task can be accomplished by independently controlling the two physical quantities mass flow and temperature. However, since there exists an intrinsic nonlinear coupling between these quantities this challenge cannot be handled sufficiently by decoupled linear PI controllers which are currently state-of-the-art in the heating sector. For this reason this paper presents a model-based control strategy which allows a decoupled control of mass flow and temperature. The strategy is based on a systematic design approach from models described in this contribution, which are validated by commercially available components from which most of them can be parametrized by the data sheet. The control strategy is designed for a typical hydraulic configuration used in heating systems, which will allow the accurate tracking of the desired trajectories for mass flows, temperatures and consequently heat flows. The controllers are validated experimentally and compared to well-tuned state-of-the-art (PI) controllers in order to illustrate their superiority and prove their decoupling of the control of mass flow and temperature in real world applications.


Conference contributions | 2020

Model-based estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass furnaces

Niederwieser H. Model-based estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass furnaces. 6th Central European Biomass Conference. 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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