Sortierung Titel Year

Publikationen


Conference contributions | 2017

Effizienzsteigerung und Optimierung des Zusammenspiels von Scheitholzkessel, Pufferspeicher und Solaranlage durch die Verwendung mathematischer Modelle

Schulz J, Zemann C, Gölles M. Effizienzsteigerung und Optimierung des Zusammenspiels von Scheitholzkessel, Pufferspeicher und Solaranlage durch die Verwendung mathematischer Modelle. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2008

Eine Methode zur Bestimmung des Rauchgas-Massenstroms in einer Biomasse-Feuerung

Bauer R, Gölles M, Brunner T, Dourdumas N, Obernberger I. Dynamic modelling of the heat transfer in a gas tube heat exchanger. At-Automatisierungstechnik. 2008;56(10):513-20.

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For an appropriate operation of a heat exchanger it is very helpful to know its dynamic behaviour. To this a simple sufficient accurate nonlinear model for the description of the dynamic behaviour is derived on the basis of a gas tube heat exchanger. Due to the general approach used for the derivation the model could be adaptet easily for other types of heat exchangers. The presented model can be used to estimate not measured physical values, to monitor the deposit formation in the heat exchanger and as a basis for the design of a model based control strategy. © Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.


Contributions at other events | 2013

Einfluss der thermo-chemischen Vorbehandlung von Biertrebern auf die anaerobe Fermentation

Bochmann, G. Einfluss der thermo-chemischen Vorbehandlung von Biertrebern auf die anaerobe Fermentation, Ph.D. Thesis, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Gegenstand der Arbeit ist der thermische und thermo-chemische Aufschluss von Biertrebern. Dabei werden die Prozessbedingungen wie Chemikalien, Konzentration, Aufschlusstemperatur sowie Aufschlussdauer und deren Einfluss auf die Biogasgewinnung untersucht. Der Nachweis erfolgt entlang den einzelnen Prozessstufen Hydrolyse, Acidogenese und Methanogenese. Die Prozessparameter der Aufschlüsse haben sowohl einen starken Einfluss auf die Hydrolyse der Lignozellulose als auch auf die Bildung thermischer Nebenprodukte. Diese Zwischenprodukte beeinflussen unter anderem den Schritt der Acidogenese stark. Wohingegen die Endprodukte, Melanoidine, anaerob kaum abbaubar sind und damit die Biogasausbeute reduzieren. Die höchsten Methanerträge werden mit einer Behandlungstemperatur von 140 °C erreicht. Unterschiedlich sind dabei die Höhe der zusätzlichen Gaserträge von 28 Vol.-% mit H2O sowie rund 50 Vol.-% mit Lauge und 60 Vol.-% mit Säure. In semi-kontinuierlich beschickten Reaktoren konnten mit unbehandelten Trebern Erträge von 410 m³N CH4/Mg oTS realisiert werden. Thermisch aufgeschlossene Treber ergeben Erträge von 468 m³N CH4/Mg oTS (+14 %). Durch die Zugabe von Lauge zum thermischen Aufschluss kann der Methanertrag auf 558 m³N/Mg oTS (+36 %) gesteigert werden. Auf Grund der Prozessinstabilitäten war der acido-thermisch aufgeschlossene Treber nicht auswertbar. Der Mehrertrag in den Aufschlüssen ist auf die verbesserte Verwertung der Zellulose und Hemizellulose zurückzuführen. Durch die Vorbehandlung der Biertreber gelingt es, die Treberverwertung wirtschaftlicher zu gestalten. Nach der Vergütung im Österreichischen Ökostromgesetz 2012 können Erträge von bis 13 €/Mg FM Treber erreicht werden. Dies ist insbesondere durch eine thermo-chemischen Vorbehandlung möglich


Other Presentations | 2012

Einfluss von Holzart und Rohstoff auf die Entstehung von Emissionen von Holzpellets während der Lagerung

Schmutzer-Rosender, I. Einfluss von Holzart und Rohstoff auf die Entstehung von Emissionen von Holzpellets während der Lagerung, Master Thesis, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Als feste biogene Brennstoffe gewinnen Pellets durch ihre hohe Energiedichte, ihre gleichbleibende Qualität und die wachsende Nachfrage immer mehr an Bedeutung. Bei der Lagerung von Holzpellets werden Emissionen frei, welche aus Abbaureaktionen von Holzbestandteilen entstehen. Es gibt bereits einige Publikationen, welche das Auftreten und die Zusammensetzung dieser Emissionen in Pelletslagern beschreiben. Es fehlen jedoch noch jegliche Nachweise zur Klärung der ursächlichen Reaktionen, weshalb die Untersuchung der Emissionen aus Pellets und deren Rohstoffen erforderlich ist.
Im Zuge dieser Arbeit werden daher zunächst die Freisetzungsraten von Kohlenmonoxid (CO) und flüchtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) verschiedener Holzrohstoffe und Pellets in Lagerungsversuchen untersucht. Des Weiteren erfolgt die Bestimmung des organischen Extraktstoffgehaltes dieser Holzproben mittels Soxhletextraktion. Anschließend werden diese Charakteristika einander gegenübergestellt, um mögliche Zusammenhänge zu identifizieren. Bei den untersuchten Holzarten handelt es sich um die Gemeine Fichte (Picea abies), die Europäische Lärche (Larix decidua) sowie um die Weihrauchkiefer (Pinus taeda). Von diesen drei Holzarten werden verschiedene Späne und Pellets miteinander verglichen. Zudem werden unterschiedliche am österreichischen Markt erhältliche Pellets untersucht. Die höchste Freisetzung von CO wird bei frischen Kieferpellets mit 2,88 mg CO/kg Brennstoff (BS) absolute Trockenmasse (atro)/d gemessen. Die geringste Menge an CO wird von einer handelsüblichen Pelletsprobe mit 0,02 mg CO/kg BS atro/d emittiert. Allen untersuchten Holzproben ist gemein, dass in den Lagerungsversuchen höhere Mengen an CO als an VOC freigesetzt werden. Der organische Extraktstoffgehalt der Kieferproben ist am höchsten. Der geringste organische Extraktstoffgehalt tritt bei den Fichtenhobelspänen auf. Bei allen Proben wird festgestellt, dass der organische Extraktstoffgehalt mit der Pelletierung abnimmt. Zudem wird bestimmt, dass sich mit zunehmender Trocknungstemperatur der organische Extraktstoffgehalt verringert. Ein eindeutiger Zusammenhang zwischen Extraktstoffgehalt und freigesetzten Emissionsmengen kann nicht hergestellt werden.


Conference contributions | 2009

Einsatz der sensorgestützten Sortiertechnik zur Senkung des Brennwerts der Deponiefraktion in MBA Anlagen

Faist V, Ragossnig A. Einsatz der sensorgestützten Sortiertechnik zur Senkung des Brennwerts der Deponiefraktion in MBA Anlagen, Waste-to-Ressources 2009, 5th-8th of May 2009, Hannover, Deutschland.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Emission characterisation of modern wood stoves under real-life oriented operating conditions

Klauser F, Carlon E, Kistler M, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Sturmlechner R, Haslinger W, Kasper-Giebl A. Emission characterisation of modern wood stoves under real-life oriented operating conditions. Atmospheric Environment 2018;192:257-266.

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The quality of emission inventories substantially bases on the reliability of used emission factors (EFs). In this work EFs were studied according to recently published characterization methods, called “beReal”, reflecting real life operating conditions in Europe. EFs for four pellet stoves and nine firewood appliances (roomheaters and cookers) of carbon monoxide (CO), organic gaseous compounds (OGC), nitrogen oxides, total solid particles (TSP) of hot and of diluted flue gas, total, elemental and organic carbon (TC, EC, OC) and benzo(a)pyrene were determined.

CO, OGC, TSPs, TC, EC and OC emissions from firewood appliances were significantly higher than for pellet stoves, indicating the high relevance of classifying appliances according to the operation type. TSP sampled from diluted flue gas at 40 °C (28 mg MJ−1 to 271 mg MJ−1 based on fuel input) was higher than TSP sampled from hot flue gas (21 mg MJ−1 to 70 mg MJ−1). This reveals the high relevance of sampling conditions for the determination of real life emissions. Benzo(a)pyrene emissions scattered over a wide range (0.5 μg MJ−1 to 129.8 μg MJ−1) indicating high sensitivity to unfavorable combustion conditions. Therefore a higher number of experimentally determined emissions factors could improve the reliability of EFs for inventories. CO emissions measured in beReal tests were substantially higher than official type tests, thus showing that type testing results provide limited information for the determination of real life emissions.

A systematic evaluation of EFs with defined real life methods like beReal would substantially improve the reliability of emission inventories.


Reviewed Conference Papers | 2017

Emission factor assessment for two firewood stoves in the autumn or spring season

Sturmlechner R, Stressler H, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Carlon E, Haslinger W, Schmidl C, Weissinger A. Emission factor assessment for two firewood stoves in the autumn or spring season. 25th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution. 25-27 April 2017.

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This study analyses the emission factors of two firewood room heaters under testing conditions which emulate real life operation. A 6.5 kW stove with low heat storage capacity and high leakage rate (stove A) is compared with an 8 kW air-tight stove with high heat storage capacity (stove B). Thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide (CO) and organic gaseous compound (OGC) emissions, as well as the thermal heat losses (THL) during cool down phase were investigated in a series of laboratory tests. Furthermore, the influence of closing the air supply dampers at the end of the heating cycle was evaluated. Test results for the whole test cycle (including cool down phase) showed that stove A had CO emissions of 2633 mg/MJOutput and OGC emissions of 203 mg/MJOutput, while stove B had CO emissions of 2408 mg/MJOutput and OGC emissions of 109 mg/MJOutput, when air dampers were closed. It was also found that user behaviour has a critical influence on the stoves’ performance. Closing the air supply dampers at the end of the stove operation improved the efficiency by up to 5.0 percentage points. Furthermore, the duration of the cool down phase increased, as well as CO and OGC emissions decreased. As a matter of fact, measures to improve the user behaviour as for example user trainings and accurate manuals are of major importance in order to decrease emissions and increase efficiency of domestic heating appliances. Moreover, real life emission factors of other technologies should be established in order to develop a database which can be applied in air quality dispersion models.


Other publication | 2016

Emission Reduction of Firewood Roomheaters by Optimization of Operating Conditions and Catalyst Integration

Reichert G, Stressler H, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Sturmlechner R, Haslinger W. Emission Reduction of Firewood Roomheaters by Optimization of Operating Conditions and Catalyst Integration. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Emission Reduction of Firewood Stoves by Integrated Honeycomb Catalysts

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Sedlmayer I, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Wöhler M, Haslinger W. Emission Reduction of Firewood Stoves by Integrated Honeycomb Catalysts, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2015, 24th-27th of February 2015, Wels, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Emissions from Biomass Boilers - The State of the Art

Schwabl M. Emissions from Biomass Boilers - The State of the Art, Wood Heating Conference, Newcastle 2015, 21st of November 2014, Newcastle, England.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Emissions from Wood Pellets During Storage Referring to the Extractive Content

Schmutzer-Rosendeder I, Emhofer W, Haslinger W. Emissions from Wood Pellets During Storage Referring to the Extractive Content, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Wood pellets and wood raw materials such as chips or sawdust emit hazardous gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during processing and storage. Due to the high toxicity of CO it is necessary to identify the release mechanisms for CO and VOCs. Several studies show that organic extractives decrease during storage as well as the emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate a possible correlation between the organic extractive content and the release of CO and VOCs. Sawdust and pellets from Norway spruce (Picea abies), European larch (Larix decidua) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) were examined. Additionally, five different pellet samples from Austrian pellet producers were investigated. Soxhlet extraction with acetone was used to extract the organic content. The concentration of CO and VOCs was measured from stored wood materials and pellets in sealed glass flasks. The highest (3,41 mg CO/kg sample dm/d) and the lowest (0,02 mg CO/kg sample dm/d) release of CO were reported with freshly produced pine pellets and a spruce pellets sample from an Austrian do-it-yourself store, respectively. The results showed that the pelletizing process reduced the content of organic extractives. The emissions of pine samples concerning CO and VOCs were higher than of the spruce and larch samples. Moreover, the organic extractive content also decreased in that order. However, a direct correlation between organic extractive content and released quantities of emissions could not be established.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen über typische Tageslastverläufe

Kelz J, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fi ne particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2012;24(3).

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Conference contributions | 2014

Empirical analysis of biomass and energy price volatility

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Morawetz U, Schmid E. Empirical analysis of biomass and energy price volatility. Schriften der GEWISOLA. 2014;49:385-386. (peer reviewed) (visual presentation)

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The current debate on biomass price volatility mainly refers to increased market dynamics and integration as well as renewable energy policy intervention. Higher price volatility leads to additional costs that are often transmitted along the supply chain to the final consumers. We empirically analyze whether or not price volatility of woody biomass commodities has increased in recent years. Results indicate that the price volatility of some woody biomass
commodities has increased, but it is still lower than of fossil fuels.


Conference Papers | 2016

Energetische Verwertung einer Feinfraktion aus der MBA durch pyrolytische Behandlung

Meirhofer M, Wartha C, Strasser C. Energetische Verwertung einer Feinfraktion aus der MBA durch pyrolytische Behandlung. Recy & DepoTech 2016 (poster). November 2016, Leoben, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Energy independent food processing industry -- realization of an innovative waste & energy management concept

Ortner M, Pröll T, Schumergruber A, Fuchs W. Energy independent food processing industry - realization of an innovative waste & energy management concept, Beijing International Environmental Technology Conference 2013, 21st-23rd of October 2013, Beijing, China.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Energy self-supply of large abattoir by sustainable waste utilisation based on anaerobic mono-digestion

Ortner M, Wöss D, Schumergruber A, Pröll T, Fuchs W. Energy self-supply of large abattoir by sustainable waste utilisation based on anaerobic mono-digestion. Applied Energy. 2015;143:460-471.

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Abattoirs have a large number of energy intensive processes. Beside energy supply, disposal costs of animal by-products (ABP) are the main relevant cost drivers. In this study, successful implementation of a new waste and energy management system based on anaerobic digestion is described. Several limitations and technical challenges regarding the anaerobic digestion of the protein rich waste material had to be overcome. The most significant problems were process imbalances such as foaming and floatation as well as high accumulation of volatile fatty acids and low biogas yields caused by lack of essential microelements, high ammonia concentrations and fluctuation in operation temperature. Ultimately, 85% of the waste accumulated during the slaughter process is converted into 2700 MW h thermal and 3200 MW h electrical energy in a biogas combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The thermal energy is optimally integrated into the production process by means of a stratified heat buffer. The energy generated by the biogas CHP-plant can cover a significant share of the energy requirement of the abattoir corresponding to 50% of heat and 60% of electric demand, respectively. In terms of annual cost for energy supply and waste disposal a reduction of 63% from 1.4 Mio € to about 0.5 Mio € could be achieved with the new system. The payback period of the whole investment is approximately 9 years. Beside the economic benefits also the positive environmental impact should be highlighted: a 79% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from 4.5 Mio kg CO2 to 0.9 Mio kg CO2 annually was achieved. The realized concept received the Austrian Energy Globe Award and represents the first anaerobic mono-digestion process of slaughterhouse waste worldwide.


Conference contributions | 2013

Enhanced flue gas condensation technology: analysis of a 10MW demonstration plant

Hebenstreit B, Höftberger E, Ohnmacht R, Lundgren J, Toffolo A. Enhanced flue gas condensation technology: analysis of a 10MW demonstration plant, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1614-1617.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Enhanced Separation of the Organic Fraction from Paper Mill Effluent for Energy Recovery

Stoyanova E, Bochmann G, Couperus A, Fuchs W. Enhanced Separation of the Organic Fraction from Paper Mill Effluent for Energy Recovery. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 1 October 2016;7(5): 1031-1039.

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Other Presentations | 2015

Entwicklung eines modellbasierten Optimierungsalgorithmus für die Wärmeversorgung mit Biomassefeuerungen

Oberlechner, F. Entwicklung eines modellbasierten Optimierungsalgorithmus für die Wärmeversorgung mit Biomassefeuerungen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2015.

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Wärmeversorgungsanlagen von Gebäuden, bestehend aus Biomasse-Feuerung, Solarkollektoren, Pufferspeicher, Heizkreis und Warmwasserzapfstellen gewinnen aufgrund ihrer Nachhaltigkeit zunehmend an Bedeutung. In den letzten Jahren wurden insbesondere für eine effiziente Regelung der Biomasse-Feuerung sehr gute Konzepte entwickelt. Diese können jedoch zumeist aufgrund unzureichender, übergeordneter Systemregelungen nicht ihr volles Potential ausschöpfen. In ihrer primitivsten Ausführung schaltet eine Systemregelung die Biomasse-Feuerung anhand der Ladehöhe des Pufferspeichers aus und ein. Diese Art der Regelung hat unweigerlich viele Ein-/ Ausschaltvorgänge der Feuerung, sowie eine schlechte Ausnutzung des solaren Eintrags zur Folge. Insbesondere bei Biomasse-Feuerungen sind Ein-/ Ausschaltvorgänge äußerst unwirtschaftlich und führen zu stark erhöhten Schadstoffemissionen. Die häufigen Ein-/ Ausschaltvorgänge verursachen zusätzlich erhöhte Wartungs- und Betriebskosten und schlussendlich eine verkürzte Lebensdauer zahlreicher Komponenten. Um die Ein-/ Ausschaltvorgänge zu minimieren und den solaren Eintrag zu steigern, soll im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein übergeordnetes, modellprädiktives Regelungskonzept für die gesamte Wärmeversorgungsanlage entwickelt werden. Nach einer theoretischen Einführung in gemischt-ganzzahlige Optimalsteuerungsprobleme sowie ausgewählter Lösungsmethoden werden Prädiktionsmodelle für alle Komponenten der Wärmeversorgungsanlage entwickelt. Aufbauend auf den mathematischen Modellen für die einzelnen Komponenten der Anlage wird eine nichtlineare modellprädiktive Regelung entwickelt. Diese berücksichtigt zusätzlich Wetterprognosen sowie die erwartete Lastabnahme und führt schlussendlich zu einer Minimierung des Brennstoffverbrauchs sowie der Anzahl der Ein-/ Ausschaltvorgänge. Den Abschluss der Arbeit bilden ausführliche Simulationsstudien mit unterschiedlichen Wetterszenarien sowie Vergleiche mit herkömmlichen Regelungsstrategien.  


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Environmental trade-offs between residential oil-fired and wood pellet heating systems: forecast scenarios for Austria until 2030

Karner K, Kristöfel C, Enigl M, Strasser C, Schmid E. Environmental trade-offs between residential oil-fired and wood pellet heating systems: forecast scenarios for Austria until 2030. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. December 2017;80: 868-879.

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Conference contributions | 2017

ErgoS – Energierückgewinnung durch offene Sorption für Biomassefeuerungsanlagen

Höftberger E, Riepl R, Hebenstreit B, Golicza L, Paar EK, Goritschnig M, Zweiler R, Hochenauer C. ErgoS – Energierückgewinnung durch offene Sorption für Biomassefeuerungsanlagen. Güssing 17 Konferenz. March 2017, Güssing, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Estimation of binary diffusion coefficients in supercritical water - A mini review

Kraft S, Vogel F. Estimation of binary diffusion coefficients in supercritical water - A mini review. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 26 April 2017;56(16): 4847-4855.

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Diffusion coefficients of various solutes in supercritical water, which were either measured or retrieved from Molecular Dynamics simulations, were reviewed. Diffusion coefficients of molecules relevant for supercritical water processes were calculated with correlations reported in the literature and compared to the values of reference data. For conditions well above the critical point of water the simple Stokes-Einstein equation predicts the diffusion coefficients with an accuracy better than 20%. For conditions near the critical point the Wilke-Chang correlation gives the most accurate results. Diffusion coefficients for typical molecules occurring in supercritical water processes such as O2, N2, CO, CO2, or CH4 are estimated to be in the range of 60 · 10⁻⁹ m²/s at 673 K and 30 MPa. For H2, for which no experimental data are available, much higher diffusion coefficients in the range of 250 · 10⁻⁹ m²/s seem plausible. The data set of binary diffusion coefficients in supercritical water, either determined experimentally or by Molecular Dynamics simulations, should be extended significantly to include more solutes, as well as higher temperatures and pressures.
 


Conference contributions | 2010

Evaluating the Transient Behaviour of Biomass Based Micro-CHP Systems - Steam Piston Engine and Integrated Thermoelectric Power Generation

Friedl G, McCarry A, Aigenbauer S, Moser W, Haslinger W. Evaluating the Transient Behaviour of Biomass Based Micro-CHP Systems - Steam Piston Engine and Integrated Thermoelectric Power Generation, 18th European Biomass Conference 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1271-1282.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Evaluation of parameters determining PM emissions and their chemical composition in modern residential biomass heating appliances

Brunner T, Bärnthaler G, Obernberger I. Evaluation of parameters determining PM emissions and their chemical composition in modern residential biomass heating appliances, Int. Conf. World BIOENERGY 2008, 27th-29th of May 2008, Jönköping, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2017

Evaluation of the Combustion Behaviour of Straw, Poplar and Maize in a Small-Scale Biomass Boiler

Kelz J, Zemann C, Muschick D, Krenn O, Hofmeister G, Weissinger A, Gölles M. & Hochenauer C. Evaluation of the Combustion Behaviour of Straw, Poplar and Maize in a Small-Scale Biomass Boiler. Proceedings 25th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 12-15 June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden. p. 1958-1966

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In order to evaluate the combustion behaviour of new biomass feedstocks such as short rotation coppice (poplar wood chips), fuels from agriculture (wheat straw pellets) and biomass residues (maize spindle grits), comprehensive test runs investigating both particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions were performed. A commercially available small-scale biomass boiler, especially designed to enable high fuel flexibility, was used for this evaluation. The combustion behaviour was determined for various boiler load conditions and primary air ratios while maintaining a constant total air ratio. Based on wet chemical analyses of the fuels, fuel indexes were calculated to deliver primary information on the combustion behaviour to be expected. During the test runs appropriate operating conditions were determined for these new biomass feedstocks in order to optimise combustion parameters and to minimise PM and gaseous emissions as well as to inhibit ash related problems (slagging, ash deposit formation and corrosion). The optimisation of operating conditions by primary measures showed a big potential for a stable boiler operation combined with reduced emissions. The findings provide the basis for a further development of combustion systems as well as control systems for the combustion of new biomass feedstocks.