Sortierung Titel Year

Publikationen


Conference contributions | 2014

Ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels in residential pellet boilers

Schwabl M, Feldmeier S, Wopienka E, Haslinger W, Dahl J, Jensen TB, Hartmann H, Schön C, Boman C, Boström D. Pellets Workshop “Ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels in residential pellet boilers” (held held during the Central European Biomass Conference 2014), 15th-18th of January, Graz, Austria, 2014.

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Conference contributions | 2012

AshMelT - Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets

Haslinger W, et al. AshMelT - Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2013

AshMelT – Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets

Feldmeier S, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Wopienka E. AshMelT – Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets, European Pellets Conference 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2015

AshMelT Project Background – Why this work was necessary

Schwabl M, Wopienka E. AshMelT Workshop “AshMelT Project Background – Why this work was necessary” (held during de World Sustainable Energy Days 2015), 25th-27th of February, Wels, Austria, 2015.

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Other Presentations | 2015

Aspects of microalgal biomass as feedstock in biogas plants

Gruber M, Zohar E, Jerney J, Ludwig I, Bochmann G, Nussbaumer L, Montgomery L, Fuchs W, Drosg B, Schöpp T, Obbard JP. Aspects of microalgal biomass as feedstock in biogas plants, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2009

Assessing and Labelling the Eco-Efficiency of Small Scale Biomass Combustion Systems - BIOHEATLABEL

Haslinger W, Griesmayr S, Strasser C, Lingitz A, Jungmeier G. Assessing and Labelling the Eco-Efficiency of Small Scale Biomass Combustion Systems – BIOHEATLABEL, 17th European Biomass Conference 2009, 29th of June-3rd of July 2009, Hamburg, Germany. p 2335-2340.

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The project BioHeatLABEL aims at the derivation of eco-design criteria for small scale biomass
combustion systems. It is a mirror project to the on-going European preparatory study for solid fuel small combustion installations. The presented paper gives an overview of the on-going work. It presents the applied methodologies so far. Sales and performance data as well as prices are collected for the existing stock as well as for new products. Six Base Cases are defined to best possibly represent market relevant product categories. These Base Cases are (1) log wood boilers with natural draught, (2) log wood boilers with forced draught, (3) wood chips boilers, (4) wood pellets boilers, (5) log wood stoves, and (6) wood pellets stoves. For these product categories the bills of production materials as well as for packaging are collected and information about the end-of-life behaviour is retrieved. Based on the above, preliminary life cycle assessment calculations are performed using the tool EuP EcoReport. The usability of this tool for a sound, reliable and representative life cycle assessment is discussed. Finally, an outlook on the further work is given.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Assessment of correlations between tar and product gas composition in dual fluidized bed steam gasification for online tar prediction.

Benedikt F, Kuba M, Schmid JC, Müller S, Hofbauer H. Assessment of correlations between tar and product gas composition in dual fluidized bed steam gasification for online tar prediction. Applied Energy 2019;238:1138-1149.

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Thermochemical conversion of biomass feedstock via dual fluidized bed steam gasification is a well-proven technology used to produce a medium calorific product gas for various applications in the energy or transportation sector or for chemical syntheses. At unfavorable gasification conditions, undesirable high amounts of tar, which are aromatic hydrocarbons, are present in the product gas. High tar contents are a major problem, and they lead to uneconomic operation due to sharply diminished quality of product gas or unexpected plant shut downs due to fouling of the product gas coolers. Currently, tar content is measured with a discontinuous wet-chemical analysis method, which needs several hours of sample preparation to receive the final tar content. The aim of this study is to establish valid correlations between online measured permanent gas components in the product gas and its tar content. The results show that hydrogen, methane, and ethene concentrations are strongly related to the tar content in the product gas, while the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide content did not show a clear correlation. Using these correlations with online measured gas components provides the possibility of a direct and prompt response of a plant operator in case of unfavorable gasification conditions. Additionally, an optimization of the plant operation can be conducted and thereby, the operation hours and, consequently, the economic efficiency are improved.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant

Retschitzegger S, Brunner T, Waldmann B, Obernberger I. Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(10):5670-5683.

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To systematically investigate high-temperature corrosion of superheaters in biomass combined heat and power
(CHP) plants, a long-term test run (5 months) with online corrosion probes was performed in an Austrian CHP plant (28 MWNCV; steam parameters: 32 t/h at 480 °C and 63 bar) firing chemically untreated wood chips. Two corrosion probes were applied in parallel in the radiative section of the boiler at average flue gas temperatures of 880 and 780 °C using the steel 13CrMo4-5 for the measurements. Corrosion rates were determined for surface temperatures between 400 and 560 °C. The results show generally moderate corrosion rates and a clear dependence upon the flue gas temperatures and the surface temperatures of the corrosion probes, but no influence of the flue gas velocity has been observed. The data are to be used to create corrosion diagrams to determine maximum steam temperatures for superheaters in future plants, which are justifiable regarding the corrosion rate. Dedicated measurements were performed at the plant during the long-term corrosion probe test run to gain insight into the chemical environment of the corrosion probes. From fuel analyses, the molar 2S/Cl ratio was calculated with an average of 6.0, which indicates a low risk for high-temperature corrosion. Chemical analyses of aerosols sampled at the positions of the corrosion probes showed that no chlorine is present in condensed form at the positions investigated. Deposit probe measurements performed at the same positions and analyses of the deposits also showed only small amounts of chlorine in the deposits, mainly found at the leeward position of the probes. Subsequent to the test run, the corrosion probes have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. The results confirmed the deposit probe measurements and showed only minor Cl concentrations in the deposits and no Cl at the corrosion front. Because, in the case of Cl-catalyzed active oxidation, a layer of Cl is known to be found at the corrosion front, this mechanism is assumed to be not of relevance in the case at hand. Instead, elevated S concentrations were detected at the corrosion front, but the corrosion mechanism has not yet been clarified.


Conference contributions | 2012

Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, flue gas, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant

Retschitzegger S, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, flue gas, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

Details

To systematically investigate high-temperature corrosion of superheaters in biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants, a long-term test run (5 months) with online corrosion probes was performed in an Austrian CHP plant (28 MWNCV; steam parameters: 32 t/h at 480 °C and 63 bar) firing chemically untreated wood chips. Two corrosion probes were applied in parallel in the radiative section of the boiler at average flue gas temperatures of 880 and 780 °C using the steel 13CrMo4-5 for the measurements. Corrosion rates were determined for surface temperatures between 400 and 560 °C. The results show generally moderate corrosion rates and a clear dependence upon the flue gas temperatures and the surface temperatures of the corrosion probes, but no influence of the flue gas velocity has been observed. The data are to be used to create corrosion diagrams to determine maximum steam temperatures for superheaters in future plants, which are justifiable regarding the corrosion rate. Dedicated measurements were performed at the plant during the long-term corrosion probe test run to gain insight into the chemical environment of the corrosion probes. From fuel analyses, the molar 2S/Cl ratio was calculated with an average of 6.0, which indicates a low risk for high-temperature corrosion. Chemical analyses of aerosols sampled at the positions of the corrosion probes showed that no chlorine is present in condensed form at the positions investigated. Deposit probe measurements performed at the same positions and analyses of the deposits also showed only small amounts of chlorine in the deposits, mainly found at the leeward position of the probes. Subsequent to the test run, the corrosion probes have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. The results confirmed the deposit probe measurements and showed only minor Cl concentrations in the deposits and no Cl at the corrosion front. Because, in the case of Cl-catalyzed active oxidation, a layer of Cl is known to be found at the corrosion front, this mechanism is assumed to be not of relevance in the case at hand. Instead, elevated S concentrations were detected at the corrosion front, but the corrosion mechanism has not yet been clarified.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation

Antolini D, Hollenstein C, Martini S, Patuzzi F, Zemann C, Felsberger W et al. Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2019 Jun 11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00714-w

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Fixed-bed biomass gasification coupled with internal combustion engines allows an efficient exploitation of biomass for the combined production of heat and power (CHP) at small scale with increased economic viability with respect to combustion-based CHP systems. The main barrier on the way towards a wider market distribution is represented by the fact that a robust practical operation of state-of-the-art fixed-bed biomass gasification systems is limited to very specific fuel properties and steady-state operation. The aim of this work is twofold. On the one hand, it presents the results of a series of test runs performed in a monitored commercial plant under different process conditions, in order to assess its behaviour during load modulation and fuel property variations. On the other hand, an in-house developed thermodynamic equilibrium model was applied to predict the behaviour of the gasification reactor. This gasification model could be used for the development of a model-based control strategy in order to increase the performance of the small-scale gasification system. To assess the general operational behaviour of the whole gasification system an experimental one-week-long test run has been performed by BIOENERGY 2020+ and the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano as round robin test. The plant has been tested under different operating conditions, in particular, varying the load of the engine and the moisture content of the feedstock. The outcomes shown in the present work provide a unique indication about the behaviour of a small-scale fix-bed gasifier working in conditions different from the nominal ones.


Conference Papers | 2018

Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation: Preliminary results of the "Flexi-Fuel-Gas-Control" Project

Antolini D, Hollenstein C, Martini S, Patuzzi F, Zemann C, Felsberger W, Baratieri M, Gölles M. Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation: Preliminary results of the "Flexi-Fuel-Gas-Control" Project. 7th International conference on Engineering for Waste and Biomass Valorisation. 2.-5. July 2018. Prague: Czech Republic.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Associated effects of storage and mechanical pre-treatments of microalgae biomass on biomethane yields in anaerobic digestion

Gruber-Brunhumer MR, Jerney J, Zohar E, Nussbaumer M, Hieger C, Bromberger P, Bochmann G, Jirsa F, Schagerl M, Obbard JP, Fuchs W, Drosg B. Associated effects of storage and mechanical pre-treatments of microalgae biomass on biomethane yields in anaerobic digestion. Biomass and Bioenergy. October 2016;93: 259-268.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Ausbrandregelung durch zusätzliche Messung des Kohlenmonoxidgehalts im Rauchgas

Bischof J, Gölles M, Obernberger I, Baumbach G. Ausbrandregelung durch zusätzliche Messung des Kohlenmonoxidgehalts im Rauchgas. 27. Deutscher Flammentag. September 2015, Clausthal, Germany.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Ausbrandregelung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

Rumpf, M. Ausbrandregelung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2013.

Details

 Die Anzahl der installierten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen ist in letzter Zeit deutlich gestiegen. Aus diesem Grund ist es umso wichtiger eine schadstoffarme und effiziente Verbrennung zu ermöglichen. Genau diese Anforderung stellt jedoch eine große Herausforderung für deren Regelung dar. Der optimale Restsauerstoffgehalt des Rauchgases, im Sinne von niedrigen Kohlenmonoxidemissionen (CO-Emissionen) bei bestmöglichem Wirkungsgrad, ist sehr stark vom Betriebszustand, von der Anlagengeometrie und vom verwendeten Brennstoff abhängig. Diese Tatsache wird jedoch derzeit bei den Regelungen von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen nicht oder nur teilweise berücksichtigt. Um hohe CO-Emissionen aufgrund von Sauerstoffmangel in jedem Fall zu vermeiden, werden Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen üblicherweise mit vergleichsweise hohem Sauerstoff betrieben. Diese Maßnahme geht jedoch mit einer unerwünschten Reduktion des Wirkungsgrades der Feuerung einher. Diese Arbeit hat zum Ziel eine Strategie zu entwickeln, welche das Luftverhältnis sowie auch die Luftstufung während des Betriebes dahingehend anpasst, dass stets ein möglichst effizienter und dennoch schadstoffarmer Betrieb gewährleistet wird. Die im Rahmen dieser Masterarbeit behandelten Arbeiten, wurden anhand einer handelsüblichen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlage durchgeführt. Die verwendete Anlage wird mit Hackgut betrieben und hat eine Kesselnennleistung von 30 kW. Für die Anwendung einer Strategie zur Reduktion der CO-Emissionen wäre es von großem Vorteil, wenn der CO-Gehalt des Rauchgases gemessen werden könnte. Derzeit gibt es jedoch nur sehr teure Rauchgasanalyseeinheiten, welche für eine dauerhafte Bestimmung des CO-Gehaltes des Rauchgases geeignet sind. Somit war bis jetzt eine Messung des CO-Gehalts nur bei großen Biomassefeuerungsanlagen wirtschaftlich. In dieser Arbeit wurde zunächst eine Marktanalyse zu preiswerten Sensoren zur Detektion unverbrannter Komponenten im Rauchgas durchgeführt. Es wurden ausschließlich Sensoren untersucht, die aufgrund ihres geringen Preises auch wirtschaftlich eingesetzt werden können. Dabei zeigte sich, dass es derzeit zwei Sensoren gibt, welche diese Anforderungen erfüllen. Diese Sensoren dienen jedoch lediglich zur Detektion von unverbrannten Komponenten im Rauchgas und sind nicht in der Lage den CO-Gehalt des Rauchgases exakt zu messen. Aus diesem Grund wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen CO-Konzentration und Sensorsignal untersucht und anschließend mathematisch beschrieben, wobei die wesentlichen Querempfindlichkeiten berücksichtigt wurden. Da die physikalischen Zusammenhänge sehr komplex und zu einem wesentlichen Teil nicht bekannt waren, wurde das mathematische Modell mit Hilfe der experimentellen Modellbildung ermittelt, wobei die verwendeten Messdaten einen möglichst großen Bereich der verschiedenen Einflussparameter beinhalteten. In weiterer Folge wurden umfassende Testläufe zur Untersuchung der Auswirkung der Leistung, des Luftverhältnisses im Brennstoffbett, des gesamten Luftverhältnisses und des Brennstoffwassergehaltes auf die CO-Emissionen durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass es für einen möglichst effizienten und gleichzeitig schadstoffarmen Betrieb notwendig ist, das Luftverhältnis im Brennstoffbett sowie den Sekundär"-luft"-massen"-strom in Abhängigkeit der geforderten Leistung zu variieren. Darauf aufbauend wurde eine geeignete Strategie zur Umsetzung dieser Maßnahmen entwickelt und implementiert. Dabei werden die Führungsgrößen für den Restsauerstoffgehalt sowie das Luftverhältnis im Brennstoffbett laufend an die geforderte Leistung angepasst. Zusätzlich dazu wird die Führungsgröße für den Restsauerstoffgehalt durch einen Suchalgorithmus zur Minimierung der CO-Emissionen variiert. Schlussendlich wurde die entwickelte Strategie mit Hilfe eines typischen Lastzyklus experimentell verifiziert. 


Technical Reports | 2016

Austria – Biofuels Technology, Research and Development

Bacovsky D, Sonnleitner A. Austria – Biofuels Technology, Research and Development. IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Newsletter. December 2016.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Austrian context for biowaste and case study on brewery waste

Bochmann G. Austrian context for biowaste and case study on brewery waste, Biogaz Europe 2013, 20th of March 2013, Nantes, France.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Automatic CFD optimisation of biomass combustion plants

Shiehnejad A, Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Automatic CFD optimisation of biomass combustion plants, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. 756-760.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Automatisierung und Visualisierung einer Anlage zur Wasserstoffgewinnung aus Biomasse

Malits, M. Automatisierung und Visualisierung einer Anlage zur Wasserstoffgewinnung aus Biomasse, Master Thesis, Fachhochschule Technikum Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Other Presentations | 2019

ÖKO-OPT-QUART - Workshop

Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere

Moser A, Muschick D, Gölles M, Mach T, Schranzhofer H, Nageler P, Lerch W, Leusbrock I, Tugores C. ÖKO-OPT-QUART: Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere. Workshop im Rahmen des FFG-Projekts ÖKO-OPT-QUART (3. Ausschreibung "Stadt der Zukunft") am 25.01.2019.

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Workshop of the research project ÖKO-OPT-QUART (Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere)


Technical Reports | 2019

ÖKO-OPT-QUART Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere

Endbericht (Entwurf)

Moser A, Muschick D, Gölles M, Mach T, Schranzhofer H, Leusbrock I, Ribas Tugores C. ÖKO-OPT-QUART Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere. Berichte aus Energie- und Umweltforschung. 2019.

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Other publication | 2019

ÖKO-OPT-QUART Leitfaden

Richtlinien, Methoden und Hinweise zur Vorgehensweise bei der Planung und Implementierung von modellprädiktiven Regelungen für komplexe vernetzte Energiesystemen in zukünftigen Stadtquartieren

Moser A, Muschick D, Gölles M. ÖKO-OPT-QUART Leitfaden. Richtlinien, Methoden und Hinweise zur Vorgehensweise bei der Planung und Implementierung von modellprädiktiven Regelungen für komplexe vernetzte Energiesystemen in zukünftigen Stadtquartieren.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Ökodesign-Maßnahmen für kleine Heizgeräte

Moser W, Haslinger W. Ökodesign-Maßnahmen für kleine Heizgeräte, 12. Industrieforum Pellets 2012, 9th-10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Contributions at other events | 2012

Über die Aufbereitung biogener Gase mittels Adsorption

Mayer, T. Über die Aufbereitung biogener Gase mittels Adsorption, Ph.D. Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Behandlungsoptionen einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - ökologischer und ökonomischer Vergleich

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig AM, Rixrath D. Behandlungsoptionen einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - ökologischer und ökonomischer Vergleich, DepoTech 2012, 6th-9th of October 2012, Leoben, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig A, Pieber S, Brooks L, Fercher E. Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Österreich.

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