Publication | Peer reviewed papers | Potentiale, Bioenergiesysteme, Logistik

Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale Furnaces

Published 2020

Citation: Kienzl N, Margaritis N, Isemin R, Zaychenko V, Strasser C, Kourkoumpas DS, Grammelis P, Klimov D, Larina O, Sytchev G, Mikhalev A. Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2020;275:122882.


The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of upgraded agricultural biomass feedstock such as torrefied sunflower husks during combustion in small and medium heating applications. Sunflower husk is formed in large quantities at enterprises producing sunflower oil and can be used as biofuel. However, big problems arise due to the low bulk density of husks and the rapid growth of ash deposits on the heating surfaces of boilers. In order to solve these problems, it was proposed to produce pellets from husks, and to subject these pellets to torrefaction. After torrefaction, net calorific value was increased by 29% while the risk of high temperature corrosion of boilers was reduced. Signs of ash softening neither occurred in combustion of raw nor in combustion of torrefied sunflower husk pellets. High aerosol emissions, already present in raw sunflower husk pellets, could not be mitigated by torrefaction. First combustion results at medium scale furnaces indicated that sunflower husk pellets (both raw and torrefied) in a commercial boiler < 400 kW, operated in a mode with low primary zone temperatures (< 850 °C), meet current emission limits. Regarding the future upcoming emission limits according to the European Medium Combustion Plant Directive, additional measures are required in order to comply with the dust limits.

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