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Real-life emission factor assessment for biomass heating appliances at a field measurement campaign in Styria, Austria
Sturmlechner R, Schmidl C, Carlon E, Reichert G, Stressler H, Klauser F, Kelz J, Schwabl M, Kirchsteiger B, Kasper-Giebl A, Höftberger E, Haslinger W.
Citation: Sturmlechner R, Schmidl C, Carlon E, Reichert G, Stressler H, Klauser F, Kelz J, Schwabl M, Kirchsteiger B, Kasper-Giebl A, Höftberger E, Haslinger W. Real-life emission factor assessment for biomass heating appliances at a field measurement campaign in Styria, Austria. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 2019.236:221-231
Biomass combustion is a major contributor to ambient air pollution. Thus, knowing the real-life emissions of biomass heating systems is crucial. Within the project Clean Air by biomass a field measurement campaign was conducted. 15 biomass heating appliances were tested in households at the end user according to their usual operation. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as for the genotoxic and carcinogenic substance benzo(a)pyrene, were evaluated and compared to current proposed European and Austrian emission factors used for emission inventories. Moreover, the shares of particles and benzo(a)pyrene in hot and cooled flue gas were determined. Results showed a high variability of emissions in the field. Highest values and ranges occurred for room heaters (TSPtotal: 226 mg/MJ). Biomass boilers showed clearly lower emission factors (TSPtotal: 184 mg/MJ) in the field than room heaters and also than the proposed European and Austrian emission factors, in many cases. Emission factors for tiled stoves showed a similar trend (TSPtotal: 67 mg/MJ). The share of condensable particles in the flue gas was remarkable. Especially benzo(a)pyrene was found mostly in the condensable fraction of the particles.