Conference Presentation | Conference presentations and posters |
Intelligent Building Control with User Feedback in the Loop
Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Schweiger G, Schwengler T, Mörth M, Heimrath R, Mach T, Herzlieb M, Horn M.
Citation: Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Schweiger G, Schwengler T, Mörth M, Heimrath R, Mach T, Herzlieb M, Horn M. Intelligent Building Control with User Feedback in the Loop. 9th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems. Kopenhagen, Denmark, 12. September 2023. Oral Presentation.
Buildings account for 30% of the globally consumed final energy and 19% of the indirect emissions, i.e., from the production of electricity and heat. Air-conditioned office buildings have an especially high energy footprint. Retrofitting buildings with predictive control strategies can reduce their energy demand and increase thermal comfort by considering future weather conditions. One challenge lies in the required infrastructure, i.e., sensors and actuators. Another challenge is about satisfying the comfort requirements of the users, getting their feedback and reacting to it. We propose a predictive control strategy, where an optimization-based energy management system (EMS) controls the thermal zones of such office buildings. The approach uses a mathematical model of the building within an optimization problem to predict and shift thermal demand. The individual thermal zones are modelled using a grey-box approach, where the simultaneous state and parameter estimation is handled by an unscented Kalman filter (UKF). This minimizes the needed effort for deployment of the system, as the parameters are learned automatically from historical measurement data. The objective function ensures the users’ comfort based on a comfort model, penalizes unwanted behaviour such as frequent valve position changes, and minimizes the costs for heating and cooling supply. Since the offices are typically shared by multiple users, the internal comfort model is calibrated based on their feedback. Each feedback is viewed as a measurement from the internal comfort model, and an UKF updates the parameters of the model, thus lowering or increasing the temperature setpoint of the zone controller in a robust manner. As a case study, an office building at the “Innovation District Inffeld” is considered. The proposed predictive control strategy, together with the user feedback, is implemented. A central information and communication technology (ICT) handles all communication with the building automation system. We developed a simple web-based feedback system with a five-point Likert scale for user feedback integration. The presented ideas are evaluated based on both a preliminary simulation study and potential evaluation using the building modelling software IDA ICE, and a real-world implementation. A key requirement was to limit the number of new sensors and actuators, thus focusing on how much can be achieved with a retrofit measure with minimal hardware, but intelligent software. The presentation will give, an overview of the developed methods and first results of the real implementation will be given.