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Conference contributions | 2012

Strategic Research Priorities for Biomass Technology

Haslinger W. Strategic Research Priorities for Biomass Technology, 4th Annual Meeting of the RHC-platform biomass panel 2012, 10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Books / Bookchapters | 2013

Storage and pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production

Bochmann G, Montgomery L. Storage and pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production. The biogas handbook. ISBN 978 0 85709 498 8 2013:85-103.

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Biogas substrates are typically moist, which can make them difficult to store because bacteria and mould can grow on them. Ensiling, which involves the production of acid by lactic acid bacteria, is often used to preserve crops cheaply. Biogas substrates are also often fibrous, which can make them difficult to mix and means that some of their energy is locked up within the fibres. Different pre-treatment technologies are being investigated to access the energy in these fibres, to increase the rate of biogas production and to improve the mixing qualities of the substrates. Pre-treatment technologies are based on three principles: physical (including mechanical shear, heat, pressure and electric fields), chemical (acids, bases and solvents) and biological (microbial and enzymatic). Combinations of these principles are also used, including steam explosion, extrusion and thermo-chemical processes. Although many of these processes have been investigated at small scale, few have been analysed at large scale in un-biased studies. Many of these techniques are associated with high energy input (e.g. mechanical and heat pre-treatment), high equipment costs (e.g. mechanical systems where the blades erode) or use large volumes of chemicals (e.g. alkali pre-treatment). Different pre-treatment technologies work better with different substrates, and more research is required in this field to understand which combinations are worthwhile. This chapter describes some of the common pre-treatment technologies along with some advantages and disadvantages.


Conference contributions | 2012

Steigerung des Jahreswirkungsgrads von Pelletsheizungen

Schmidl C. Steigerung des Jahreswirkungsgrads von Pelletsheizungen, 12. Industrieforum Pellets 2012, 9th-10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Steam gasification of challenging fuels in the dual fluidized bed gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Steam gasification of challenging fuels in the dual fluidized bed gasifier, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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In order to enlarge the range of feedstock for the dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification process, the influence of several fuel properties was studied in the 100 kW DFB pilot plant. Fuels with high concentration of nitrogen and sulfur, fuels with an increased concentration of fine particles, and fuels with extremely high content of volatiles were tested. The DFB gasification system is found to be robust and can handle all the materials. Nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine from the fuel are predominantly converted in the gasification reactor, either to gases (nitrogen, sulfur) or bound to ash (chlorine, sulfur). For the performance of the DFB gasifier, sufficient contact of fuel, product gas and bed material is important. Increasing amounts of fine particles or volatiles in the fuels lead to higher tar loads in the product gas, because the residence time of fuel particles in bubbling fluidized bed is shorter.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Steam gasification of biomass – Typical gas quality and operational strategies derived from industrial-scale plants

Larsson A, Kuba M, Berdugo Vilches T, Seemann M, Hofbauer H, Thunman H. Steam gasification of biomass – Typical gas quality and operational strategies derived from industrial-scale plants. Fuel Processing Technology. 2021.212:106609.

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Steam gasification enables the thermochemical conversion of solid fuels into a medium calorific gas that can be utilized for the synthesis of advanced biofuels, chemicals or for heat and power production. Dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification is at present the technology applied to realize gasification of biomass in steam environment at large scale. Few large-scale DFB gasifiers exist, and this work presents a compilation and analysis of the data and operational strategies from the six DFB gasifiers in Europe. It is shown that the technology is robust, as similar gas quality can be achieved despite the differences in reactor design and operation strategies. Reference concentrations of both gas components and tar components are provided, and correlations in the data are investigated. In all plants, adjusting the availability and accessibility to the active ash components (K and Ca) was the key to control the gas quality. The gas quality, and in particular the tar content of the gas, can conveniently be assessed by monitored the concentration of CH4 in the produced gas. The data and experience acquired from these plants provide important knowledge for the future development of the steam gasification of biomass.


Conference contributions | 2009

Status of Development of Synthetic Biofuels from Biomass in Austria

Rauch R. Status of Development of Synthetic Biofuels from Biomass in Austria, Alternative Propulsion Systems and Energy Carriers 2009, 16th of October 2009, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Status of BioSNG Production and FT Fuels from Biomass Steam Gasification

Rauch R. Status of BioSNG Production and FT Fuels from Biomass Steam Gasification, 4th BTLtec Biomass to Liquids 2009, 24th-25th of September, 2009 Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Status fortschrittlicher Biokraftstoffe

Bacovsky D. Status fortschrittlicher Biokraftstoffe, 7. EID Kraftstoff-Forum 2014, 18th-19th of March 2014, Hamburg, Germany

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Conference contributions | 2012

STATUS and FUTURE of bioSNG in EUROPE

Rauch R. STATUS and FUTURE of bioSNG in EUROPE, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

State‐of‐the‐art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems

Mandl C, Obernberger I, Biedermann F. State‐of‐the‐art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 732-738.

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The objectives of the present study were to: (a) develop an appropriate estimation method for assessing the characteristic ash melting temperatures of different biomass fuels by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TEC) based on ash analysis data, (b) estimate the correlation between the results obtained from TEC and the experimentally received data for the melting temperatures using a TGA/DSC-method (thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry) and, (c) evaluate the applicability of the TEC and DSC methods as prediction tools for the melting behaviour of biomass ashes in relation to the conventional ash melting test according to DIN 51730. The results are presented for four selected biomass ash samples: straw, miscanthus, beech and bark (spruce). The agreement between the results obtained from TEC and experimental results (TGA/DSC and standard ash melting test) was reasonably good. For comparison between the experimental results and TEC regarding the deformation temperature it is recommended to utilize the temperature range between T15 and T30 estimated by TEC at 15 wt% and 30 wt% molten phase respectively. Differences between calculated melting temperatures T30 for straw (770°C) and bark (1,280°C) on the one side, and experimentally determined data on the other side are lower than 100°C. In the case of miscanthus and beech ash the prediction was with a deviation of around 200°C less precise. Flow temperatures measured as per standard test (DIN 51730) show generally a good agreement with the TEC fusion temperatures at 70 wt% of molten fraction (T70) for straw, miscanthus and bark ash. In case of beech ash is the TEC prediction of T70 (>1,600°C) moved to higher temperatures compared to experimental expected 1,380°C. The results of this study in combination with reliable databases and an appropriate calculation model, qualify the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations as a useful technique for a prediction of the ash melting behaviour including the assessment of characteristic melting temperatures.


Conference contributions | 2009

State-of-the-art and comparison of incineration and gasification of residues and waste

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. State-of-the-art and comparison of incineration and gasification of residues and waste. Junior Scientist Conference 2010, 7th-9th May 2010, Vienna, Austria.

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Thermal treatment of residues and waste is an important issue with increasing demand. In this work two pathways of thermal waste treatment, incineration and gasification, are compared. For this purpose literature on both technologies has been reviewed and the state-of-art technology for waste incineration and gasification is presented. The comparison highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both technologies and identifies future potentials.


Contributions at other events | 2009

State-of-the-art and comparison of incineration and gasification of residues and waste

Wilk, V. State-of-the-art and comparison of incineration and gasification of residues and waste, Doctoral Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2009.

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More and more waste is generated every year, which has to be disposed. There is a legal obligation to treat waste before it can be landfilled in the European Union. Thus, thermal waste treatment is a very important issue.
In this work two pathways of thermal waste treatment, incineration and gasification, are compared. For this purpose, literature on both technologies has been reviewed and the stateof‐art technology for waste incineration and gasification is presented. The comparison highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both technologies and identifies future potentials. In Europe waste incineration is the state‐of‐the‐art technology ensuring destruction of the pollutants and allowing recovery of the energy content of the waste. A waste incineration plant consists of a furnace, where the waste is incinerated and the chemically bonded energy of the waste is discharged as heat. The hot flue gases pass the heat to the water in the heating surfaces of the steam generator. The energy of the waste can be used for the generation of hot water, steam of electrical power. Then the flue gas has to be cleaned in the air pollution control system. Dust is precipitated, HCl and HF is removed in an acid scrubber and SO2 in an alkaline scrubber. A catalytic reaction destroys dioxins and furans and reduces the emissions of NOx. Due to waste incineration the volume of the residues, which have to be landfilled, is
reduced by 90%. The second pathway of thermal waste treatment is waste gasification, where solid carbonaceous materials are converted into combustible gases by reaction with gasification agents. Due to gas production, not only the energy content of the waste can be recovered but the product range is extended. The producer gas can be converted into heat and power in a conventional steam boiler but also combusted in gas engines or turbines with higher efficiencies. In a combined cycle plant the hot exhaust gas of the turbine can be used in a heat recovery steam generator to increase the efficiency even more. After further cleaning the producer gas is also a suitable feedstock for synthesis of liquid fuels, synthetic natural gas and other chemicals.
Waste gasification processes have been developed in the past, but the plants have been shut down because of economic reasons and/or technical problems. However, important research has been done in the field of biomass gasification and thus gasification technology has been improved markedly. The fluidised bed gasifier in Güssing is one of the most successful examples; this technology is about to be commercialised. Considering these developments, there is definitely interesting potential for waste gasification now and the design of a new waste gasification process based on the findings in biomass gasification will be the scope of future research work.


Conference contributions | 2012

State-of-the-art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems

Obernberger I. State-of-the-art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2017

State of the art dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in industrial scale

Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. State of the art dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in industrial scale. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2015

State of the art biomass gasification for CHP production – the Ulm plant

Kirnbauer F, Maierhans F, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. State of the art biomass gasification for CHP production – the Ulm plant. Regatec 2015. 7-8 May 2015, Barcelona, Spain.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2017

Startups in Kalifornien – Kollaborationsmodell im Energiebereich

Stadler M., Temper M., Haslinger W. Startups in Kalifornien – Kollaborationsmodell im Energiebereich. Impulsreferat Energy.Inc.Ubator, Start-ups als Katalysator in F&E für marktfähige Energiesystemlösungen. Co-Creation-Workshop. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie. Österreich, 22. September 2017.

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Conference contributions | 2019

Spectroscopic in situ methods for the evaluation of the active centers on ash-layered bed materials from gasification in a fluidized bed reactor

Chlebda D, Aziaba K, Janisch D, Kuba M, Hofbauer H, Łojewska J. Spectroscopic in situ methods for the evaluation of the active centers on ash-layered bed materials from gasification in a fluidized bed reactor. ICPS 2019

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Sorghum, a sustainable feedstock for biogas production? Impact of climate, variety and harvesting time on maturity and biomass yield

Wannasek L Ortner M Amon B Amon T. Sorghum, a sustainable feedstock for biogas production? Impact of climate, variety and harvesting time on maturity and biomass yield. BIOMASS BIOENERG. 2017; 106: 137-145

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Conference contributions | 2015

Sommersacher P, Kienzl N, Brunner T, Obernberger I

Sommersacher P, Kienzl N, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Online determination of the release of inorganic elements using a single particle reactor coupled with an ICP-MS, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2022

Solid oxide fuel cell operation with biomass gasification product gases: Performance- and carbon deposition risk evaluation via a CFD modelling approach

Pongratz G, Subotić V, Hochenauer C, Scharler R, Anca-Couce A. Solid oxide fuel cell operation with biomass gasification product gases: Performance- and carbon deposition risk evaluation via a CFD modelling approach. 1 April 2022. 244.

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Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) models used in the past for biomass-to-power plant simulations are limited in their predictability of the carbon deposition risk. In this work, industrial-relevant cell designs were modeled in 2D-CFD considering detailed reaction kinetics which allowed more accurate performance simulations and carbon deposition risk assessments. Via a parametric study, the influence of varying cell operating conditions on the cell performance and carbon deposition risk was quantified when utilizing product gases from steam- and air gasification with varying steam addition. Considering the results from this parameter study and carbon deposition risk assessment, recommendations for promising gasifier-SOFC configurations and cell operating points for stable long-term operation are presented. For smaller-scale biomass-to-power systems, the utilization of product gas from air gasification in anode supported cells with Ni/zirconia-based anode can be recommended, with only moderate steam dilution of the product gas at 750°C cell operating temperature. For larger scales, steam gasification might be meaningful, offering a generally higher electrical efficiency and power output in fuel cells than air gasification. However, a higher risk for carbon deposition could be determined in comparison to air gasification. Hence, a cell temperature of 850°C besides the use of cells with Ni/ceria-based anodes is recommended.


Other Presentations | 2022

Solar goes Digital: Wie Solarwärme selbstlernende Algorithmen nutzt (Austria Solar Webinar 26)

Unterberger V. Solar goes Digital: Wie Solarwärme selbstlernende Algorithmen nutzt (Austria Solar Webinar 26). Online am 11.05.2022.

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Conference Papers | 2020

Soft-Sensor for the on-line estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass boilers with additional monitoring of the heat exchanger fouling

Niederwieser H, Zemann C, Gölles M, Reichhartinger M. Soft-Sensor for the On-Line Estimation of the Flue Gas Mass Flow in Biomass Boilers with Additional Monitoring of the Heat Exchanger Fouling. In Proceedings of the 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2020 (eEUBCE 2020). 2020. p. 280 - 284

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The flue gas mass flow is one of the fundamental quantities of the combustion process in biomass boilers. Since it directly relates to the enthalpy flow entering the heat exchanger, its knowledge is highly advantageous for a sophisticated load control of the biomass boiler. It also includes information regarding the primary and secondary air mass flows as well as the mass flows of potentially occurring leakage air and thermally decomposed fuel. However, in practical application it is not possible to obtain a reliable measurement of the flue gas mass flow. For this reason, this work presents a soft-sensor for the on-line estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass boilers. The approach is robust against fouling of the relevant boiler components and is based on standard measurements which are typically available in biomass boilers. In addition, the soft-sensor offers the possibility of monitoring the degree of heat exchanger fouling.


Conference contributions | 2012

Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts

Martini S. Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts, 5th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Leipzig, Germany. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts

Martini S. Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts, 5 th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Freiberg, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2019

Smart Logwood Boiler – A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems

Zemann C, Deutsch M, Zlabinger S, Hofmeister G, Gölles M, Horn M. Smart Logwood Boiler – A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Oral Presentation). May 2019.

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