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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Analysis of H2S-related short-term degradation and regeneration of anode- and electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells fueled with biomass steam gasifier product gas

Pongratz G, Subotić V, Schroettner H, Hochenauer C, Skrzypkiewicz M, Kupecki J, Anca-Couce A, Scharler R. Analysis of H2S-related short-term degradation and regeneration of anode- and electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells fueled with biomass steam gasifier product gas. Energy.2021.218:119556.

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Using solid oxide fuel cells in biomass gasification based combined heat and power production is a promising option to increase electrical efficiency of the system. For an economically viable design of gas cleaning units, fuel cell modules and further development of suitable degradation detection methods, information about the behavior of commercially available cell designs during short-term poisoning with H2S can be crucial. This work presents short-term degradation and regeneration analyses of industrial-relevant cell designs with different anode structure and sulfur tolerance fueled with synthetic product gas from wood steam gasification containing 1 to 10 ppmv of H2S at 750°C and 800°C. Full performance regeneration of both cell types was achieved in all operating points. The high H2O content and avoided fuel depletion may have contributed to a lower performance degradation and better regeneration of the cells. A strong influence of the catalytically active anode volume on poisoning and regeneration behavior was quantified, thereby outlining the importance of considering the anode structure besides the sulfur tolerance of the anode material. Hence, cells with less sulfur tolerant anode material but larger anode volume might outperform cells less sensitive to sulfur in the case of an early detection of a gas cleaning malfunction.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Categorization of small-scale biomass combustion appliances by characteristic numbers

Feldmeier S, Schwarz M, Wopienka E, Pfeifer C. Categorization of small-scale biomass combustion appliances by characteristic numbers. Renewable Energy. 2021.163:2128-2136.

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The market offers a broad range of different combustion appliances dedicated to residential heating with biomass. The effect of fuel properties on the formation of slag and emissions varies and the technology influences the impact to a certain extent. The applicability of biomass fuels is not only determined by operational settings but also by the design of boiler components as grate area and combustion chamber. Aspects as the fuel load on the grate, residence time, geometry of grate and combustion chamber design, as well as feeding and de-ashing influence the extent of slag formation and emission release. The determination of characteristic numbers by means of constructional measures allows a systematic comparison and - in a further step - an assessment/categorization of combustion technologies. After conducting a boiler survey relevant parameters regarding grate, combustion chamber, feeding, and ash removal were gathered. Characteristic numbers were specified in order to compare technological aspects. The results of this study allow the investigation of the influence of the combustion technology on the performance. They will assist the systematic and targeted design of small-scale boilers and the optimization of combustion appliances in future, especially when it comes to fuel-flexibility.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Combustion of poultry litter and mixture of poultry litter with woodchips in a fixed bed lab-scale batch reactor

Katsaros G, Sommersacher P, Retschitzegger S, Kienzl N, Tassou SA, Pandey DS. Combustion of poultry litter and mixture of poultry litter with woodchips in a fixed bed lab-scale batch reactor. Fuel. 2021.286.119310.

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Experiments have been conducted in a batch fixed bed lab-scale reactor to investigate the combustion behaviour of three different biomass fuels, poultry litter (PL), blend of PL with wood chips (PL/WC) and softwood pellets (SP). Analysis of the data gathered after completion of the test runs, provided useful insights about the thermal decomposition behaviour of the fuels, the formation of N gaseous species, the release of ash forming elements and the estimation of aerosol emissions. It was observed that the N gaseous species are mainly produced during the devolatilisation phase. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was the predominant compound in the case of SP combustion, whereas ammonia (NH3) displayed the highest concentration during the combustion of PL and blend (PL/WC). With reference to ash forming elements, the release rates of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) range between 15–50% and 20–37% respectively, whereas the release rate of sulphur (S) falls between 54–92%. Chlorine (Cl) presents very high release rate for all tested fuels acquiring values greater than 85%, showing the volatile nature of the specific compound. The maximum potential of aerosol emissions was estimated based on the calculation of ash forming elements. In particular, during PL combustion the maximum aerosol emissions were observed, 2806 mg/Nm3 (dry flue gas, 13 vol% O2), mainly influenced by the release rate of K in the gas phase. Fuel indexes for the pre-evaluation of combustion related challenges such as NOx emissions, potential for aerosols formation, corrosion risk, and ash melting behaviour have also been investigated.


Other publication | 2021

Gemeinsam richtig heizen - Video

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Conference contributions | 2020

Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves – A Technical Review

Reichert G, Schwabl M, Schmidl C. Advanced Test Methods for Pellet Stoves – A Technical Review. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation) 2020.

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Third party testing of direct heating appliances fueled with pellets has been established in many countries worldwide. The main goals are ensuring operation safety and a minimum level of performance of the products prior to market implementation. This kind of approval procedure for new products requires testing standards, certified testing bodies and a legal framework defining minimum requirements for specified performance parameters which are assessed in the respective standards.

While the overall targets are quite similar for all countries having set-up such procedures, the practical implementation of these targets in the national/international testing standards is remarkably different. This applies to both, the way of operating the appliance during the testing and the measurements performed during the testing.

Furthermore several industries were requested recently to modify their product standards towards more realistic operating conditions. The most famous example is car industry, but this request may also apply to biomass heating systems.

 


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale Furnaces

Kienzl N, Margaritis N, Isemin R, Zaychenko V, Strasser C, Kourkoumpas DS, Grammelis P, Klimov D, Larina O, Sytchev G, Mikhalev A. Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2020;275:122882.

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The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of upgraded agricultural biomass feedstock such as torrefied sunflower husks during combustion in small and medium heating applications. Sunflower husk is formed in large quantities at enterprises producing sunflower oil and can be used as biofuel. However, big problems arise due to the low bulk density of husks and the rapid growth of ash deposits on the heating surfaces of boilers. In order to solve these problems, it was proposed to produce pellets from husks, and to subject these pellets to torrefaction. After torrefaction, net calorific value was increased by 29% while the risk of high temperature corrosion of boilers was reduced. Signs of ash softening neither occurred in combustion of raw nor in combustion of torrefied sunflower husk pellets. High aerosol emissions, already present in raw sunflower husk pellets, could not be mitigated by torrefaction. First combustion results at medium scale furnaces indicated that sunflower husk pellets (both raw and torrefied) in a commercial boiler < 400 kW, operated in a mode with low primary zone temperatures (< 850 °C), meet current emission limits. Regarding the future upcoming emission limits according to the European Medium Combustion Plant Directive, additional measures are required in order to comply with the dust limits.


Conference contributions | 2020

Biochar’s reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA

Lagler J, Martini S, Kienzl N, Loder A. Biochar’s reaction kinetics under gasification conditions by experimental tests with TGA. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (poster). 2020.

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During the last years biomass evolved into one of the most important energy sources in Central Europe. Depending on the atmosphere, different types of thermochemical processes can be differentiated: pyrolysis, gasification and combustion, whereas pyrolysis operates without any oxygen in the atmosphere, combustion with the highest ratio of oxygen. Depending on the conversion technology and conversion conditions, different products can be generated: heat, cooling power and electrical power, liquid, gaseous and solid products, such as hydrogen, FT-fuels and biochar.
This work focuses on the valorisation of solid side products of gasification based biomass CHP-systems to increase ecologic and economic benefit. Depending on the conversion process of biomass into producer gas this solid residue consists mainly of ash or of so called biochar with high carbon content. Increasing the amount of biochar leads to a decrease of producer gas, but, with the high market potential of biochar, the economic benefits increase. According to its characteristics (e.g. purity, surface structure) different applications can be addressed and therefore different prices can be achieved. Therefore, extended research on biochar treatment processes and related reaction kinetics of biochar is from crucial importance for the development and optimisation of downstream upgrading processes in order to reach the desired quality of the biochar. In the past, such considerations of utilising side products, like biochar, have not been in the centre of attention during the design phase of gasification reactors. Therefore, the establishment of a finishing-treatment of biochar extracted from a gasification process is under investigation. The focus of this paper lies on the reaction kinetics of biochar activation itself and not the primary material (biomass). In order to derivate correlations between reaction kinetics and atmosphere compositions as well as temperature, experimental test runs are conducted with a Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA) including a steam furnace, which enables studies of mass and energy changes under defined absolute humidity. To produce applicable and reliable data, the limitations of the TGA-test-setup are evaluated with examinations on variations of sample mass, bulk density, particle size distribution and the gas flow. On this basis the test design is defined with certain specifications on the sample preparation and a constant flow velocity. The investigated biochar taken out the gasification process is dried, milled and sieved for the TGA-tests. The main part is devoted to conduct a detailed investigation changing the content of moisture (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as the temperature. The tests are operated at a temperature range between 700 and 1000°C, H2O-concentrations from 0 to 80 vol% and CO2-concentrations also in the range of 0 to 80 vol%. These systematic experimental variations provide the basis for a model of the reaction kinetics of biochar under different boundary conditions. The data is to be evaluated via the generic model including temperature and the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O. Afterwards it will be matched with conventional models (e.g. Arrhenius plot, linear regression models) to determine their suitability. One of those models was used in the paper of Ollero et al, where the influence of CO2 on the reaction kinetics of olive residue was investigated. 1First results show that the reaction rate of biochar is much lower than the one of olive residue. Effects of treatment conditions on the surface properties are investigated by taking out the treated samples after a defined treatment period at a defined mass loss and subsequent surface analysis (BET, pore size/volume distribution) of the samples. In first BET surface analysis, the treatments of biochar with vapour lead to a surface of approximately 1000m²/g whereas the original sample has a BET surface lower than 150m²/g. This finding leads to the question how the reaction kinetics of a treatment process influences the surface change. The obtained data is taken as basis for developing an upgrading process for biochar to a high value product of the gasification process. In order to prove the suitability of TGA-tests for identifying optimised treatment conditions, further research shall demonstrate the correlation of the lab-scale TGA-results with experiences of pilot scale tests.
 


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin

Anca-Couce A, Tsekos C, Retschitzegger S, Zimbardi F, Funke A, Banks S, Kraia T, Marques P, Scharler R, de Jong W, Kienzl N. Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin.Fuel.2020;276:118002.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118002

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The large variations found in literature for the activation energy values of main biomass compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in pyrolysis TGA raise concerns regarding the reliability of both the experimental and the modelling side of the performed works. In this work, an international round robin has been conducted by 7 partners who performed TGA pyrolysis experiments of pure cellulose and beech wood at several heating rates. Deviations of around 20 – 30 kJ/mol were obtained in the activation energies of cellulose, hemicellulose and conversions up to 0.9 with beech wood when considering all experiments. The following method was employed to derive reliable kinetics: to first ensure that pure cellulose pyrolysis experiments from literature can be accurately reproduced, and then to conduct experiments at different heating rates and evaluate them with isoconversional methods to detect experiments that are outliers and to validate the reliability of the derived kinetics and employed reaction models with a fitting routine. The deviations in the activation energy values for the cases that followed this method, after disregarding other cases, were of 10 kJ/mol or lower, except for lignin and very high conversions. This method is therefore proposed in order to improve the consistency of data acquisition and kinetic analysis of TGA for biomass pyrolysis in literature, reducing the reported variability.


Conference contributions | 2020

CleanAir by biomass

Sturmlechner R, Stressler H, Golicza L, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Kelz J. CleanAir by biomass. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Peer-reviewed publications | 2020

Combined influence of inorganics and transport limitations on the pyrolytic behaviour of woody biomass

Almuina-Villar H, Sommersacher P, Retschitzegger S, Anca-Couce A, Dieguez-Alonso A. Combined influence of inorganics and transport limitations on the pyrolytic behaviour of woody biomass. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 2020.80:73-78

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A deeper understanding and quantification on the influence of inorganic species on the pyrolysis process, combined with the presence of heterogeneous secondary reactions, is pursued in this study. Both chemical controlled and transport limited regimes are considered. The former is achieved in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) with fine milled biomass in the mg range, while the latter is investigated in a particle level reactor with spherical particles of different sizes. To account for the influence of inorganics, wood particles were washed and doped with KCl aqueous solutions, resulting in K concentrations in the final wood of around 0.5% and 5% on dry basis. Gas species and condensable volatiles were measured online with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The removal of inorganic species delayed the pyrolysis reaction to higher temperatures and lowered char yields. The addition of inorganics (K) shifted the devolatilization process to lower temperatures, increased char and water yields, and reduced CO production among others. Higher heating rates and temperatures resulted in lower char, water, and light condensable yields, but significantly higher CH4 and other light hydrocarbons, as well as CO. The increase in these yields can be attributed, at least in part, to the gas phase cracking reactions of the produced volatiles. Larger particle size increased the formation of char, CH4 and other light hydrocarbons, and light condensables for low and high pyrolysis temperatures, while reduced the release of CO2 and H2O. This novel data set allows to quantify the influence of each parameter and can be used as basis for the development of detailed pyrolysis models which can include both the influence of inorganics and transport limitations when coupled into particle models.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of energy generation from waste wood and forest residues: The effect of resource-efficient additives

Corona B, Shen L, Sommersacher P, Junginger M. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of energy generation from waste wood and forest residues: The effect of resource-efficient additives. Journal of Cleaner Production 2020. 259:120948.

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Combustion of waste wood can cause slagging, fouling and corrosion which lead to boiler failure, affecting the energy efficiency and the lifetime of the power plant. Additivation with mineral and sulfur containing additives during waste wood combustion could potentially reduce these problems. This study aims at understanding the environmental impacts of using additives to improve the operational performance of waste wood combustion. The environmental profiles of four energy plants (producing heat and/or power), located in different European countries (Poland, Austria, Sweden and Germany), were investigated through a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA). The four energy plants are all fueled by waste wood and/or residues. This analysis explored the influences of applying different additives strategies in the four power plants, different wood fuel mixes and resulting direct emissions, to the total life cycle environmental impacts of heat and power generated. The impacts on climate change, acidification, particulate matter, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity and cumulative energy demand were calculated, considering 1 GJ of exergy as functional unit. Primary data for the operation without additives were collected from the power plant operators, and emission data for the additives scenarios were collected from onsite measurements. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the expected increase of energy efficiency. The analysis indicated that the use of gypsum waste, halloysite and coal fly ash decreases the environmental impacts of heat and electricity produced (average of 12% decrease in all impacts studied, and a maximum decrease of 121%). The decrease of impacts is mainly a consequence of the increase of energy generation that avoids the use of more polluting marginal technologies. However, impacts on acidification may increase (up to 120% increase) under the absence of appropriate flue gas cleaning systems. Halloysite was the additive presenting the highest benefits.


Conference contributions | 2020

Customizing biomass as reducing agent in blast furnace steelmaking – Reduction potential and fluidization

Deutsch R, Strasser C, Martini S, Kienzl N. Customizing biomass as reducing agent in blast furnace steelmaking – Reduction potential and fluidization. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (oral presentation) 2020.

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The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an important issue for iron and steel industry. One possibility is to use biomass-based reducing agents, also called bioreducers, to replace at least partly the fossil reducer agents. In a first step woody biomass was treated in a lab-scale muffle furnace and afterwards ground with a ball mill. The powder characteristics were investigated in respect to the flow behavior. For a certain treatment temperature the particle size distribution and as well the flow behavior shows similarities to lignite. The next stage was to identify relations between powder characteristics and its fluidization behavior. A fluidization device was assembled and used to determine the minimum fluidization gas velocity for various bioreducer powders.


Conference contributions | 2020

Das neue Holzwärmeszenario "Holz ersetzt Heizöl"

Schmidl C, Reichert G. Das neue Holzwärmeszenario "Holz ersetzt Heizöl". World Sustainable Energy Days 2020, Wels, Austria (oral presentation). 2020.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Detailed experimental investigation of the spatially distributed gas release and bed temperatures in fixed-bed biomass combustion with low oxygen concentration

Archan G, Anca-Couce A, Gregorc J, Buchmayr M, Hochenauer C, Gruber J, Scharler R. Detailed experimental investigation of the spatially distributed gas release and bed temperatures in fixed-bed biomass combustion with low oxygen concentration. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2020;141:105725

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This publication focuses on the experimental investigation of a novel small-scale fuel flexible biomass combustion technology with a fixed-bed employing a low oxygen concentration. It was obtained through a low primary air ratio and the additional supply of recirculated flue gas. The plant was operated with spruce wood chips, which contained three different mass fractions of water, and miscanthus pellets. All relevant components of the released gas above the fixed-bed were measured, as well as the 3D bed temperature distribution. The balances confirmed a high experimental data consistency. Therefore, it was possible to determine the location of the four different conversion zones inside the fixed-bed: drying, pyrolysis, char gasification and char oxidation. The reduction of CO2 to CO in the char reduction zone worked efficiently across the entire grate area. Furthermore, the results showed that the water mass fraction of the fuel did not influence the dry product gas composition, but significantly affected the location for the release of pyrolysis products such as tars. It was found that the low oxygen concentration in the fixed-bed combined with flue gas recirculation was an effective method to reduce bed temperatures and therefore its inorganic emissions while significantly increasing feedstock flexibility. The investigations provided fundamental findings on the conversion and release behavior of the new technology under real operating conditions and are very useful for further experimental work and CFD simulations targeting the reduction of PM and NOX emissions.


Conference contributions | 2020

Evaluation of gas cleaning processes for the coupling of biomass gasification with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

Martini S, Lagler J, Kienzl N, Tsiotsias T, Rettschitzegger S. Evaluation of gas cleaning processes for the coupling of biomass gasification with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). 2020.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Evaluation of heat transfer models at various fluidization velocities for biomass pyrolysis conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed

von Berg L, Soria-Verdugo A, Hochenauer C, Scharler R, Anca-Couce A. Evaluation of heat transfer models at various fluidization velocities for biomass pyrolysis conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2020;160:120175

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Four different models for heat transfer to the particles immersed in a fluidized bed were evaluated and implemented into an existing single particle model. Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted using a fluidized bed installed on a balance at different temperatures and fluidization velocities using softwood pellets. Using a heat transfer model applicable for fluidized beds, the single particle model was able to predict the experimental results of mass loss obtained in this study as well as experimental data from literature with a reasonable accuracy. A good agreement between experimental and modeling results was found for different reactor temperatures and configurations as well as different biomass types, particle sizes – in the typical range of pellets - and fluidization velocities when they were higher than . However, significant deviations were found for fluidization velocities close to minimum fluidization. Heat transfer models which consider the influence of fluidization velocity show a better agreement in this case although differences are still present.


Conference contributions | 2020

GrateAdvance – Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies

Barroso G, Essl M, Feldmeier S, Mehrabian R, Nussbaumer T, Öhman M, Reiterer T, Schwarz M, Shiehnejad-Hesar A, Wopienka E. GrateAdvance – Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies. 6th Central European Biomass Conference - IEA-Workshop: TASK 32 (oral presentation). 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Individiual heat management in the living room

Schwabl M. Individiual heat management in the living room. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation. 2020.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Multi-stage model for the release of potassium in single particle biomass combustion

Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Hochenauer C, Scharler R. Multi-stage model for the release of potassium in single particle biomass. Fuel. 2020:280:118569.

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The release of potassium during biomass combustion leads to several problems as the emissions of particle matter or formation of deposits. K release is mainly described in literature in a qualitative way and this work aims to develop a simplified model to quantitatively describe it at different stages. The proposed model has 4 reactions and 5 solid species, describing K release in 3 steps; during pyrolysis, KCl evaporation and carbonate dissociation. This release model is coupled into a single particle model and successfully validated with experiments conducted in a single particle reactor with spruce, straw and Miscanthus pellets at different temperatures. The model employs same kinetic parameters for the reactions in all cases, while different product compositions of the reactions are employed for each fuel, which is attributed to differences in composition. The proposed model correctly predicts the online release at different stages during conversion as well as the final release for each case.


Scientific Journals | 2020

Off-gassing reduction of stored wood pellets by adding acetylsalicylic acid

Sedlmayer I, Bauer-Emhofer W, Haslinger W, Hofbauer H, Schmidl C, Wopienka E. Off-gassing reduction of stored wood pellets by adding acetylsalicylic acid. Fuel Processing Technology 2020.198:106218.

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During transportation and storage of wood pellets various gases are formed leading to toxic atmosphere. Various influencing factors and measures reducing off-gassing have already been investigated. The present study aims at applying an antioxidant, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), to reduce off-gassing from wood pellets by lowering wood extractives oxidation. Therefore, acetylsalicylic acid was applied in industrial and laboratory pelletizing processes. Pine and spruce sawdust (ratio 1:1) were pelletized with adding 0-0.8% (m/m) ASA. Glass flasks measurements confirmed off-gassing reduction by adding ASA for all wood pellets investigated.The biggest effect was achieved by adding 0.8% (m/m) ASA in the industrial pelletizing experiments where the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCtot) was reduced by 82% and a reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 70% and 51%, respectively, could be achieved. Even an addition of 0.05% (m/m) ASA led to off-gassing reduction by >10%. A six week storage experiment to investigate the long-term effectivity of ASA addition revealed, that antioxidant addition was effective in reducing CO-, CO2- and VOCtot-release, especially during the first four weeks of the storage experiment, after which time the relative reduction effect was significantly decreased.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Online determination of potassium and sodium release behaviour during single particle biomass combustion by FES and ICP-MS

Paulauskas R, Striūgas N, Sadeckas M, Sommersacher P, Retschitzegger S, Kienzl N. Online determination of potassium and sodium release behaviour during single particle biomass combustion by FES and ICP-MS. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;746:141162.

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This study focuses on the determination of alkali release from wood and straw pellets during combustion. The aim is to expand the knowledge on the K and Na release behaviour and to adopt chemiluminescence-based sensors for online monitoring of alkali detection which can be applied for the prevention of fouling formation in low quality biomass combustion plants. Flame emission spectrometry (FES) was used for optical detection of chemiluminescence spectra of K and Na using optical bandpass filters mounted on an ICCD (Intensified Charge Coupled Device) camera. FES data were verified by additional experiments with a single particle reactor (SPR) coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Using both techniques, the release profiles of K and Na during a single pellet combustion at 1000 °C were determined and obtained K* and Na* emission intensities directly correlated with the results from the ICP-MS. It was determined that the emission intensity of alkali radicals depends on alkali concentrations in the samples and K and Na radical emission intensities increase with increasing alkali amounts in the samples. The ICP-MS data revealed that the release of K and Na mainly takes place during the stage of devolatilization. During devolatilization, almost all potassium and sodium are released from wood samples, while only 65–90% of K and 74–90% of Na are released from straw samples. Based on the results, the flame emission spectroscopy technique is capable to fully detect released alkali metals in the gas phase during combustion and proves a possibility to use flame emission sensors for monitoring the release of alkali species from biomass during combustion processes.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Prediction of slag related problems during fixed bed combustion of biomass by application of a multivariate statistical approach on fuel properties and burner technology

Rebbling A, Näzelius IL, Schwabl M, Feldmeier S, Schön C, Dahl J, Haslinger W, Boström D, Öhman M, Boman C. Prediction of slag related problems during fixed bed combustion of biomass by application of a multivariate statistical approach on fuel properties and burner technology. Biomass and Bioenergy 2020.137:105557.

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Slag is related to the melting properties of ash and is affected by both the chemical composition of the fuel ash and the combustion parameters. Chemical analysis of slag from fixed bed combustion of phosphorus-poor biomass show that the main constituents are Si, Ca, K, O (and some Mg, Al, and Na), which indicates that the slag consists of different silicates. Earlier research also points out viscosity and fraction of the ash that melts, as crucial parameters for slag formation. To the authors’ knowledge, very few of the papers published to this day discuss slagging problems of different pelletized fuels combusted in multiple combustion appliances. Furthermore, no comprehensive classification of both burner technology and fuel ash parameters has been presented in the literature so far. The objective of the present paper was therefore to give a first description of a qualitative model where ash content, concentrations of main ash forming elements in the fuel and type of combustion appliance are related to slagging behaviour and potential operational problems of a biomass fuel in different small- and medium scale fixed bed appliances.

Based on the results from the combustion of a wide range of pelletized biomass fuels in nine different burners, a model is presented for amount of slag formed and expected severity of operational problems. The model was validated by data collected from extensive combustion experiments and it can be concluded that the model predicts qualitative results.


Conference contributions | 2020

Primary- and Secondary Measures for Manually Fired Stoves – An Overview

Reichert G. Primary- and Secondary Measures for Manually Fired Stoves – An Overview. 6th Central European Biomass Conference - KeepWarm/CleanAir workshop (oral presentation). 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

REFAWOOD - Reduction of ash-related problems in large-scale biomass combustion systems via resource efficient low-cost fuel additives

Sommersacher P. REFAWOOD - Reduction of ash-related problems in large-scale biomass combustion systems via resource efficient low-cost fuel additives. 6th Central European Biomass Conference CEBC 2020 (Oral Presentation). 2020.

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The incineration of waste wood is very often associated with ash-related problems (deposits, slagging and corrosion). This leads to short maintenance intervals, mainly needed to remove ash depositions, which result in significant power generation losses and high downtime costs. To avoid these problems, additives can be used, with particularly cost-effective additives being of great interest. On the one hand, the purpose of the additives is to reduce the Cl concentration in deposits on heat exchangers, which is the main cause for corrosion. On the other hand, the additives shall increase the ash melting temperature of deposits and hereby reduce deposit formation. In a first step the combustion behaviour of 3 different waste wood mixtures without and with the addition of various low-cost additives such as recycled gypsum, coal fly ash and iron sulphide with two different addition ratios were investigated in a laboratory reactor. Using the laboratory reactor allowed the determination of suitable additives and ratios of additivation for further investigations in the industrial plant. This approach represents a cost-effective and time-saving method for determining suitable additives and ratios of additivation. Based on the investigations carried out, the addition of 2% gypsum and 3% coal fly ash was recommended, since an improved ash melting behaviour can be expected with addition of gypsum and coal fly ash. These additives with the recommended mixing rates were then tested in a large scale CHP plant (a 40 MWth grate furnace with additional injection of wood dust above the grate). Extensive test runs were carried out without additive (as a reference), and with the additives focusing on dust formation (aerosols and total dust), deposit formation and the corrosion behaviour of superheaters. These investigations were accompanied by fuel and ash analyses (grate, cyclone and filter).


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Scale-up methodology for automatic biomass furnaces

Barroso G, Nussbaumer T, Ulrich M, Reiterer T, Feldmeier S. Scale-up methodology for automatic biomass furnaces. Journal of the Energy Institute 2020.93:591-604.

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This work presents a methodology to perform the scale-up of a solid fuel furnace to a higher heat output with maintaining or improving the burn-out quality. As basis to derive the scale-up concept, an example of a 35 kW screw burner for biomass fuels is investigated. Based on the Pi-theorem, the relevant dimensionless parameters are derived and similarity rules for the scale-up are proposed as follows: As initial conditions, the height to diameter ratio of the combustion chamber, the mean Reynolds number in the combustion chamber and the mean square velocity through the combustion chamber shall be kept constant or in the case of the Reynolds number may also increase. Additionally the effective momentum flux ratio between the secondary air injected in the combustion chamber and the gases from the pyrolysis and gasification section also shall be kept constant to maintain the mixing conditions between combustible gases and secondary air. Finally the thermal surface load on the screw also shall be kept constant. The influence of different scale-up approaches on thermal surface load, gas velocity, pressure losses, Reynolds number and height-to-diameter ratio are compared and discussed and a scaling approach to increase the heat output from 35 kW to 150 kW is described. For a theoretical validation of the scale-up, CFD simulations are performed to investigate the predicted pollutant emissions and the pressure loss for the scaled 150 kW furnace.