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Publications


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Drivers and barriers in retrofitting pulp and paper industry with bioenergy for more efficient production of liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels: A review.

Mäki E, Saastamoinen H, Melin K, Matschegg D, Pihkola H. Drivers and barriers in retrofitting pulp and paper industry with bioenergy for more efficient production of liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels: A review. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2021.106036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2021.106036

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Ample interest for more efficient utilization of bio-based residues has emerged in the Nordic pulp and paper (P&P) industry, which uses virgin wood as feedstock. Although different bioenergy retrofit technologies for production of liquid, solid, and gaseous bioenergy products have been applied in the existing P&P mills, the number of installations remains small. The lack of profound knowledge of existing bioenergy retrofits hinders the replication and market uptake of potential technologies. This review synthesises the existing knowledge of European installations and identifies the key drivers and barriers for implementation to foster the market uptake of potential technologies. The bioenergy retrofits were reviewed in terms of technical maturity, drivers, barriers and market potential. Based on this evaluation, common drivers and barriers towards wider market uptake were outlined from political, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal perspective. Technologies already commercially applied include anaerobic fermentation of sludge, bark gasification, tall oil diesel and bioethanol production, whereas lignin extraction, biomethanol production, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization are being demonstrated or first applications are under construction. The findings of this review show that a stable flow of residues at P&P mills creates a solid base for retrofitting. New innovative bio-based products would allow widening the companies' product portfolios and creating new businesses. Also, European Union's (EU) legislation drives towards advanced biofuels production. Wider uptake of the retrofitting technologies requires overcoming the barriers related to uncertainty of economic feasibility and unestablished markets for new products rather than technical immaturity. 


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Integration of market aspects into material development: approach and exemplification for a wood composite

Fuhrmann M, Schwarzbauer P, Hesser F. Integration of market aspects into material development: approach and exemplification for a wood composite. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-021-01697-z

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Due to a variety of applications and complex requirements in specific fields of use, the number of different materials is increasing. Thereof, the majority fails at the stage of market introduction, because the focus of material development is mostly on technical aspects, while market aspects are often neglected. One possible way of market introduction is material substitution. Thereby, requirements a material needs to meet are well known. However, a certain market focus on material development would be helpful regarding the final goal of the customer satisfaction. Therefore, this study presents an approach, which aims at guiding the technical material development and thus starts one stage earlier than most other studies, which focus on market introduction. A multi-stage approach helps integrating market aspects into material development, using the following methods: (1) method of Ashby to compare materials from a technical point of view and identify theoretically substitutable material groups and potential applications, (2) market data research and comparison for the identification of attractive markets, (3) method of Kano to classify material requirements and prioritize the optimization of material properties to satisfy the customers in selected markets. This approach is showcased and discussed using the example of an innovative wood composite under development, where it represented an aiding tool for guiding the further material development. An adaptation to any other material is possible at each of the three stages, although there are some limitations, which have to be considered, for example the selection of technical properties for the material comparison.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale Furnaces

Kienzl N, Margaritis N, Isemin R, Zaychenko V, Strasser C, Kourkoumpas DS, Grammelis P, Klimov D, Larina O, Sytchev G, Mikhalev A. Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2020;275:122882.

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The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of upgraded agricultural biomass feedstock such as torrefied sunflower husks during combustion in small and medium heating applications. Sunflower husk is formed in large quantities at enterprises producing sunflower oil and can be used as biofuel. However, big problems arise due to the low bulk density of husks and the rapid growth of ash deposits on the heating surfaces of boilers. In order to solve these problems, it was proposed to produce pellets from husks, and to subject these pellets to torrefaction. After torrefaction, net calorific value was increased by 29% while the risk of high temperature corrosion of boilers was reduced. Signs of ash softening neither occurred in combustion of raw nor in combustion of torrefied sunflower husk pellets. High aerosol emissions, already present in raw sunflower husk pellets, could not be mitigated by torrefaction. First combustion results at medium scale furnaces indicated that sunflower husk pellets (both raw and torrefied) in a commercial boiler < 400 kW, operated in a mode with low primary zone temperatures (< 850 °C), meet current emission limits. Regarding the future upcoming emission limits according to the European Medium Combustion Plant Directive, additional measures are required in order to comply with the dust limits.


Conference contributions | 2020

Erneuerbare in Österreich - Die Marktdiffusion im Lichte der Klima- und Energieziele

Biermayr P, Leonhartsberger K, Dißauer C; Eberl M, Enigl M, Fechner H, Lukas Fischer L, Fürnsinn B, Moidl S, Schmidl C, Strasser C, Weiss W, Wonisch P, Wopienka E. Erneuerbare in Österreich - Die Marktdiffusion im Lichte der Klima- und Energieziele. EnInnov 2020, 16. Symposium Energieinnovation (oral presentation). 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Experimental investigation of biomass based reducing agents for blast furnace ironmaking

Kienzl N, Strasser C, Deutsch R. Experimental investigation of biomass based reducing agents for blast furnace ironmaking. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D. Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz

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Decarbonising the transport sector is one of the key goals of national and international climate change mitigation policies. Rapid and effective market introduction of alternative fuels and vehicles is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the existing vehicle fleet as soon as possible and as extensively as possible.

However, experience with various attempts to introduce alternative fuels and vehicles to the market has shown that this is not always successful. Several participants in the Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Program (AMF TCP) have therefore proposed an annex on lessons learned from market launch attempts.

The circumstances of the introduction of advanced motor fuels and the factors influencing their commercialization (resource, transport infrastructure, economic situation, etc.) in each country are different, and it is difficult to universally evaluate an advanced motor fuels policy.

For this reason, this annex clarifies the background and objective of the central government and local governments’ introduction policy and specific measures on advanced motor fuels in the past, and summarizes the effectiveness, successes, and lessons learned regarding the promotion of advanced motor fuels in each individual case of introduction and commercialization.

The participating countries Austria, China, Finland, Japan, Sweden and the USA conduct analyses of their own case studies on past market introductions taking into account specific framework conditions for each country:

Austria: low blend biofuels, CNG-driven cars, prevented introduction of E10

China: Ethanol

Finland: E10, E85, drop-in components for diesel, biogas

Japan: FAME, natural gas

Sweden: reduction obligation, high blend biofuels and biogas, E85

USA: low and high level blends of ethanol, methanol and FFVs, natural gas

The sum of the case studies is analysed and key drivers of successes and key barriers of failures are identified. Preliminary results from this work will be discussed in an expert workshop in 2020, and then the final lessons learned and recommendations will be derived. Policy briefs including key messages, best practices, lessons learned and avoided mistakes related to advanced motor fuels covering both fuels and related vehicle technologies will be developed and provided as recommendations for political decision makers.


Conference contributions | 2020

Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D. Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz

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Decarbonising the transport sector is one of the key goals of national and international climate change mitigation policies. Rapid and effective market introduction of alternative fuels and vehicles is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the existing vehicle fleet as soon as possible and as extensively as possible.

However, experience with various attempts to introduce alternative fuels and vehicles to the market has shown that this is not always successful. Several participants in the Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Program (AMF TCP) have therefore proposed an annex on lessons learned from market launch attempts.

The circumstances of the introduction of advanced motor fuels and the factors influencing their commercialization (resource, transport infrastructure, economic situation, etc.) in each country are different, and it is difficult to universally evaluate an advanced motor fuels policy.

For this reason, this annex clarifies the background and objective of the central government and local governments’ introduction policy and specific measures on advanced motor fuels in the past, and summarizes the effectiveness, successes, and lessons learned regarding the promotion of advanced motor fuels in each individual case of introduction and commercialization.

The participating countries Austria, China, Finland, Japan, Sweden and the USA conduct analyses of their own case studies on past market introductions taking into account specific framework conditions for each country:

Austria: low blend biofuels, CNG-driven cars, prevented introduction of E10

China: Ethanol

Finland: E10, E85, drop-in components for diesel, biogas

Japan: FAME, natural gas

Sweden: reduction obligation, high blend biofuels and biogas, E85

USA: low and high level blends of ethanol, methanol and FFVs, natural gas

The sum of the case studies is analysed and key drivers of successes and key barriers of failures are identified. Preliminary results from this work will be discussed in an expert workshop in 2020, and then the final lessons learned and recommendations will be derived. Policy briefs including key messages, best practices, lessons learned and avoided mistakes related to advanced motor fuels covering both fuels and related vehicle technologies will be developed and provided as recommendations for political decision makers.


Conference contributions | 2020

Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results

Reumerman P, Rutz D, Janssen R, Bacovsky D, Gröngröft A, Saastamoinen H, Mäki E, Karampinis E. Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (poster) 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results

Reumerman P, Rutz D, Janssen R, Bacovsky D, Gröngröft A, Saastamoinen H, Mäki E, Karampinis E. Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (poster) 2020.

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Books / Bookchapters | 2020

Technische Optionen für die Umrüstung und Nachrüstung von Industrien mit Bioenergie

Rutz D, Janssen R, Reumerman P, Spekreijse J, Matschegg D, Bacovsky D, et al. Technische Optionen für die Umrüstung und Nachrüstung von Industrien mit Bioenergie. WIP Renewable Energies.2020

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Conference contributions | 2020

Techno-economic modelling of bioeconomy value chains

Fuhrmann Marilene

Dißauer C, Fuhrmann M, Strasser C, Enigl M, Matschegg D. Techno-economic modelling of bioeconomy value chains. 6th Central European Biomass Conference. 2020. Graz.

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In the context of Austria´s and the EU´s ambitious goals to combat climate change by reducing the demand for fossil fuels in all sectors, many industries plan to increase the share of renewable energy in their production processes. Furthermore greenhouse gases shall be reduced by 36 % until 2030 (compared to 2005), which means another 14 Mio. tons CO2eq will have to be reduced per year in comparison to data from 2016. In doing so, some industries find it sufficient to use green electricity or green gas from the grid, but for some industries the use of biomass is particularly interesting. In particular, the wood-based economy as an essential part of the Austrian bio-based economy is needed to promote the development of sustainable production and sustainable energy generation. Besides the increasing demand for woody biomass, the supply side will also undergo substantial changes since increasing calamities (such as bark beetle infestation and windthrow) caused by climate change will affect the wood supply to a varying extend. Hence, within the project “BioEcon” the BIOENERGY 2020+ team together with industry partners analyses the effects of these developments on the wood-based economy and the corresponding supply chains in terms of economic and technological perspectives including econometric models to evaluate woody biomass supply and demand.
 


Conference contributions | 2020

The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond

Bacovsky D, Laurikko J. The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (oral presentation) 2020.

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In the light of climate change, there is an urgent need to decarbonize our societies. The transport sector is specifically challenging, as transport demand is still growing, and so are the sector´s GHG emissions. Several countries have set ambitious national targets for GHG reduction in the transport sector. These are often backed with policy measures for implementation of both advanced renewable transport fuels and electrification.
In a project set up jointly by two Technology Collaboration Programmes of the International Energy Agency, namely the IEA Bioenergy TCP and the Advanced Motor Fuels TCP, the contribution that advanced renewable transport fuels should make to the decarbonisation of the transport sector is assessed by means of country-specific assessments.


Conference contributions | 2020

The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond

Bacovsky D, Laurikko J. The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (oral presentation) 2020.

Details

In the light of climate change, there is an urgent need to decarbonize our societies. The transport sector is specifically challenging, as transport demand is still growing, and so are the sector´s GHG emissions. Several countries have set ambitious national targets for GHG reduction in the transport sector. These are often backed with policy measures for implementation of both advanced renewable transport fuels and electrification.
In a project set up jointly by two Technology Collaboration Programmes of the International Energy Agency, namely the IEA Bioenergy TCP and the Advanced Motor Fuels TCP, the contribution that advanced renewable transport fuels should make to the decarbonisation of the transport sector is assessed by means of country-specific assessments.


Conference contributions | 2019

Biomassevergasung als künftige Säule der Gasversorgung in Österreich

Strasser C. Biomassevergasung als künftige Säule der Gasversorgung in Österreich. 10. Internationale Anwenderkonferenz Biomassevergasung. Dec 2019.

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Technical Reports | 2019

Machbarkeitsuntersuchung Methan aus Biomasse

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Im Rahmen dieser zusammenfassenden Machbarkeitsstudie werden Untersuchungen zum Biomassepotential in Österreich im Jahr 2050 sowie der Synthese von BioSNG auf Basis der Biomassewirbelschichtvergasung durchgeführt. Dabei werden verschiedene Vergasungsverfahren, welche durch den Reaktortyp charakterisiert sind, dargestellt. Bedingt durch das homogene Temperaturprofil, welches in einem Wirbelschichtvergaser gegeben ist und die dadurch gegebene einfache Regelbarkeit des Prozesses, stellt sich die Wirbelschicht als vorteilhaft im Vergleich zu Flugstromvergasern dar, welche durch das hohe Temperaturniveau einen höheren technischen Aufwand mit sich bringen und daher für Anlagen mit großen Brennstoffwärmeleistungen zu bevorzugen sind. In weiterer Folge wird auf den DFB Prozess und dessen Weiterentwicklung, den G-Volution Vergaser eingegangen, welcher den Vorteil eines größeren einzusetzenden Brennstoffspektrums aufweist.


Conference contributions | 2019

Manufacturers' data vs. literature data - a comparison of LCI and LCA results for wood-burning residential heating systems

Rixrath D, Wartha C, Enigl E, Strasser C, Piringer G, Pali E. Manufacturers' data vs. literature data - a comparison of LCI and LCA results for wood-burning residential heating systems. SETAC 19 Conference (Poster). May 2019.

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Conference contributions | 2019

Practical example: manufacturers’ data vs data from ecoinvent database – a comparison of LCI and LCA

Rixrath D, Wartha C, Enigl M, Strasser C, Piringer G. Practical example: manufacturers’ data vs data from ecoinvent database – a comparison of LCI and LCA. 15. Minisymposium Verfahrenstechnik MU Leoben (Poster). 2019.

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The aim of this work is to analyze biogenic residues and to test
them for their suitability as feedstocks for hydrothermal
liquefaction (HTL). Green waste, sewage sludge, micelles,
leftovers and organic waste were analyzed and tested. All
experiments were carried out in an autoclave at 350 °C with a
holding time of 15 minutes under an inert argon atmosphere. After
the experiments the yields of the gas, aqueous, biocrude and solid
phase were determined together with lipid contents, heating values
and elemental composition of the raw materials and biocrude
samples. Biocrude yields are of specific interest for a future
commercial use of the HTL-process. In this study we achieved
biocrude yields between 9.43% (green waste) and 34.28%
(leftovers).


Technical Reports | 2017

2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers

Warner E, Bacovsky D, Schwab A. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. February 2017.

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Technical Reports | 2017

2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers

Warner E, Bacovsky D, Schwab A. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. February 2017.

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Conference Papers | 2017

A novel approach for the implementation of TORrefaction in Residential and COMmunal heating Boilers (TORRECOMB)

Kourkoumpa DS, Kienzl N, Isemin R, Strasser C, Nikolopoulus N, Margaritis N, Panagiotis G. A novel approach for the implementation of TORrefaction in Residential and COMmunal heating Boilers (TORRECOMB). 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Environmental trade-offs between residential oil-fired and wood pellet heating systems: forecast scenarios for Austria until 2030

Karner K, Kristöfel C, Enigl M, Strasser C, Schmid E. Environmental trade-offs between residential oil-fired and wood pellet heating systems: forecast scenarios for Austria until 2030. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. December 2017;80: 868-879.

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Technical Reports | 2017

IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Report on State of the Technology of Algae Bioenergy

Bacovsky D, Sonnleitner A, Laurens L, McMillan JD. IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Report on State of the Technology of Algae Bioenergy. 5th Central European Biomass Conference, Workshop Highlights of Bioenergy Research 2017 (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Technical Reports | 2017

IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Report on State of the Technology of Algae Bioenergy

Bacovsky D, Sonnleitner A, Laurens L, McMillan JD. IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Report on State of the Technology of Algae Bioenergy. 5th Central European Biomass Conference, Workshop Highlights of Bioenergy Research 2017 (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2017

Nitrogen Assessment in Small Scale Biomass Heating Systems

Enigl M, Strasser C, Hochbichler E, Schmidl C. Nitrogen Assessment in Small Scale Biomass Heating Systems. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Conference Papers | 2017

Novel concepts for CO2 utilisation to produce value added products

Sonnleitner A, Dißauer C, Martini S, Drosg B, Meixner K, Rachbauer L, Lazarova Z, Herwig C, Kinger G, Kofler I, Strasser C. Novel concepts for CO2 utilisation to produce value added products. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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