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Conference contributions | 2020

Modification of ash properties in fixed bed combustion systems

Sommersacher P, Retschitzegger S. Modification of ash properties in fixed bed combustion systems. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Multi-stage model for the release of potassium in single particle biomass combustion

Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Hochenauer C, Scharler R. Multi-stage model for the release of potassium in single particle biomass. Fuel. 2020:280:118569.

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The release of potassium during biomass combustion leads to several problems as the emissions of particle matter or formation of deposits. K release is mainly described in literature in a qualitative way and this work aims to develop a simplified model to quantitatively describe it at different stages. The proposed model has 4 reactions and 5 solid species, describing K release in 3 steps; during pyrolysis, KCl evaporation and carbonate dissociation. This release model is coupled into a single particle model and successfully validated with experiments conducted in a single particle reactor with spruce, straw and Miscanthus pellets at different temperatures. The model employs same kinetic parameters for the reactions in all cases, while different product compositions of the reactions are employed for each fuel, which is attributed to differences in composition. The proposed model correctly predicts the online release at different stages during conversion as well as the final release for each case.


Conference contributions | 2020

NOx Modelling and Emission Reduction

Eßl M, NOx Modelling and Emission Reduction. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference Papers | 2020

Numerical simulation of fuel nitrogen conversion and NOx emissions in biomass boilers with advanced air staging technology

Essl M, Schulze K, Scharler R. Numerical simulation of fuel nitrogen conversion and NOx emissions in biomass boilers with advanced air staging technology. 3RD DOCTORAL COLLOQUIUM BIOENERGY. 2020

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The increased biomass utilization leads to the need of an efficient and flexible usage of available sources. Therefore, it is necessary to combust low-cost biogenic residues, which inherently have higher nitrogen contents that lead to increased NOx emissions. In order to tackle this issue a new combustion technology with double air staging and flue gas recirculation is under development. The technology also features an increased fuel bed height and very low oxygen concentrations in the fuel bed to reduce fuel bed temperatures. This work focuses on the CFD simulation of the formation and reduction of NOx emissions of in a small scale boiler (35 kWth). Compared to previously applied models, major modification concerning the heat and mass transfer in the fuel bed as well as the subsequent conversion in the freeboard were made. The fuel bed is modelled via representative fuel particles with a Lagrangian approach and a thermally thick particle model considering intra-particle
gradients. Due to the increased fuel bed height and the relatively low oxygen concentration the formation and cracking of tars has to be considered in the simulation. This heavily influences the formation and reduction of NOx and its precursors. The fuel bound nitrogen is released via the particle model in the form of NO during char burnout and via a lumped tar species during pyrolysis. The cracking of the lumped tar species is modelled via two global gas phase reactions that releases the NOx precursors NH3 and HCN. The cracking reactions are added to a skeletal reaction mechanism with 28 species and 102 reactions that includes the fate of the N species. The simulation results are compared to experimental data from test runs with spruce wood chips and Miscanthus pellets as fuels. The comparison showed good agreement for the test runs with wood chips, where the temperature distribution inside the fuel bed and the released species above the fuel bed were predicted well. The test runs with Miscanthus showed a greater deviation between the measured and simulated values. For both fuels the NOx reduction that was experimentally observed in the secondary combustion zone could not be predicted with reasonable agreement. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the cracking of the tars and the subsequent formation of the NOx precursors. The presented work forms the basis for further improvements of the numerical models and subsequently the optimization of the new technology.


Scientific Journals | 2020

Off-gassing reduction of stored wood pellets by adding acetylsalicylic acid

Sedlmayer I, Bauer-Emhofer W, Haslinger W, Hofbauer H, Schmidl C, Wopienka E. Off-gassing reduction of stored wood pellets by adding acetylsalicylic acid. Fuel Processing Technology 2020.198:106218.

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During transportation and storage of wood pellets various gases are formed leading to toxic atmosphere. Various influencing factors and measures reducing off-gassing have already been investigated. The present study aims at applying an antioxidant, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), to reduce off-gassing from wood pellets by lowering wood extractives oxidation. Therefore, acetylsalicylic acid was applied in industrial and laboratory pelletizing processes. Pine and spruce sawdust (ratio 1:1) were pelletized with adding 0-0.8% (m/m) ASA. Glass flasks measurements confirmed off-gassing reduction by adding ASA for all wood pellets investigated.The biggest effect was achieved by adding 0.8% (m/m) ASA in the industrial pelletizing experiments where the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCtot) was reduced by 82% and a reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 70% and 51%, respectively, could be achieved. Even an addition of 0.05% (m/m) ASA led to off-gassing reduction by >10%. A six week storage experiment to investigate the long-term effectivity of ASA addition revealed, that antioxidant addition was effective in reducing CO-, CO2- and VOCtot-release, especially during the first four weeks of the storage experiment, after which time the relative reduction effect was significantly decreased.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Online determination of potassium and sodium release behaviour during single particle biomass combustion by FES and ICP-MS

Paulauskas R, Striūgas N, Sadeckas M, Sommersacher P, Retschitzegger S, Kienzl N. Online determination of potassium and sodium release behaviour during single particle biomass combustion by FES and ICP-MS. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;746:141162.

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This study focuses on the determination of alkali release from wood and straw pellets during combustion. The aim is to expand the knowledge on the K and Na release behaviour and to adopt chemiluminescence-based sensors for online monitoring of alkali detection which can be applied for the prevention of fouling formation in low quality biomass combustion plants. Flame emission spectrometry (FES) was used for optical detection of chemiluminescence spectra of K and Na using optical bandpass filters mounted on an ICCD (Intensified Charge Coupled Device) camera. FES data were verified by additional experiments with a single particle reactor (SPR) coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Using both techniques, the release profiles of K and Na during a single pellet combustion at 1000 °C were determined and obtained K* and Na* emission intensities directly correlated with the results from the ICP-MS. It was determined that the emission intensity of alkali radicals depends on alkali concentrations in the samples and K and Na radical emission intensities increase with increasing alkali amounts in the samples. The ICP-MS data revealed that the release of K and Na mainly takes place during the stage of devolatilization. During devolatilization, almost all potassium and sodium are released from wood samples, while only 65–90% of K and 74–90% of Na are released from straw samples. Based on the results, the flame emission spectroscopy technique is capable to fully detect released alkali metals in the gas phase during combustion and proves a possibility to use flame emission sensors for monitoring the release of alkali species from biomass during combustion processes.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Optimal operation of residential heating systems with logwood boiler, buffer storage and solar thermal collector

Zemann C, Deutsch M, Zlabinger S, Hofmeister G, Gölles M, Horn M. Optimal operation of residential heating systems with logwood boiler, buffer storage and solar thermal collector. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2020,140:105622.

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Modern central heating systems with logwood boilers are comprised of the boiler, a buffer storage and solar thermal collectors. Conventional control strategies for these heating systems do not coordinate the utilization of all components. This can lead to a sub-optimal operation of the entire heating system resulting in a loss of efficiency and increased pollutant emissions. This contribution presents a control strategy which considers all components of the heating system including the user and forecasts for the solar yield and heat demand. It determines and carries out an optimal operating strategy that improves the user utility and maximizes the heating system efficiency while also ensuring a clean and efficient combustion. The control strategy continuously learns the user behavior and instructs the user when to refill the logwood boiler and how much fuel to use. The new control strategy was verified through test runs performed at an experimental setup consisting of a commercially available logwood boiler with a nominal capacity of 28 kW , two buffer storages with a capacity of 1.5 m3 each and a heating device with a thermal output of up to 12 kW simulating a solar thermal collector. During these test runs, the CO emissions were reduced 93.6 %by in the main combustion phase, 7.1 % more solar yield was utilized, the buffer losses were reduced by - 16.9 % and the overall efficiency was increased by 3.1 % . Thus, the application of this control strategy resulted in a significantly improved user utility and heating system efficiency.


Conference contributions | 2020

Optimization based planning of energy systems

Zellinger M, Optimization based planning of energy systems. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Optimizing of a hydrogen production plant by optimization of the CO2 removal step

Loipersböck J. Optimizing of a hydrogen production plant by optimization of the CO2 removal step. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation) 2020.

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Hydrogen production in 2010 was estimated to 50 Mt/a. 96 % of today’s hydrogen is produced by converting fossil fuels in thermochemical processes. As main conversion technology steam reforming of natural gas and naphtha has been established. Hydrogen is mainly used in refineries, for ammonia production and in several chemical production plants. Hydrogen is also seen as a promising alternative energy carrier for the transport sector. Therefor an increasing demand on hydrogen over the next years can be assumed.  
To substitute fossil produced hydrogen several renewable hydrogen routes have been established. Beside electrolysis of water also steam reforming of biogas, methane pyrolysis and gasification technologies have been developed. This work will focus on hydrogen production based on dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass.  
Dual fluidized bed gasification gives the possibility to establish a renewable hydrogen production route and substitute fossil fuels. A hydrogen production plant consisting of a dual fluidized bed gasifier, a water gas shift stage, a CO2 removal, a pressure swing adsorption and a steam reformer were erected and operated over 1000 h. The gathered data was validated and a model for up-scaling was developed. A benchmark size of 10 MW fuel input power was used as base for economic estimations. As described in previous work an overall efficiency of 55 % can be achieved, which is comparable to alternative technologies. Compared to other renewable routes, hydrogen production based on dual fluidized bed gasification gives the possibility of a fuel flexible system for continuous hydrogen production.  
Hydrogen production derived by DFB gasification of wood is a reliable process, which needs to be optimized due to economic reasons. Special attention has to be paid on the CO2 removal, to obtain an economic efficient process.  
In this study a parameter variation of the CO2 removal, which consists of absorption and desorption column, was done. Mono-ethanol-amine (MEA) was used as a solvent. One focus of the experimental investigations was the desorption at low temperatures to gain the possibility of using temperature levels which are common in district heat grids. For the experiments real synthesis gas with impurities was used. Over the gas cleaning steps of the hydrogen production plant, impurities were removed and hydrogen content was increased. To increase the efficiency of the CO2 removal and further the hydrogen production, a parameter study was done. A good correlation between separation efficiency and desorption temperature could be observed.  
Economics were calculated comparing natural gas steam reforming, electrolysis and hydrogen production based dual fluidized bed gasification. First results show a high potential for establishing the BioH2 plant as a commercial production plant. An economic plant operation with wood chips can be achieved at plant sizes of 20-30 MW fuel input power. A switch to lower quality biomass can reduce the economic feasible plant size even further.  
Keywords: hydrogen, up-scaling, economics, CO2 removal


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Performance Comparison between Two Established Microgrid Planning MILP Methodologies Tested On 13 Microgrid Projects

Stadler M, Pecenak Z, Mathiesen P, Fahy K, Kleissl J. Performance Comparison between Two Established Microgrid Planning MILP Methodologies Tested On 13 Microgrid Projects. Energies.2020;13:446

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Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization algorithms provide accurate and clear solutions for Microgrid and Distributed Energy Resources projects. Full-scale optimization approaches optimize all time-steps of data sets (e.g., 8760 time-step and higher resolutions), incurring extreme and unpredictable run-times, often prohibiting such approaches for effective Microgrid designs. To reduce run-times down-sampling approaches exist. Given that the literature evaluates the full-scale and down-sampling approaches only for limited numbers of case studies, there is a lack of a more comprehensive study involving multiple Microgrids. This paper closes this gap by comparing results and run-times of a full-scale 8760 h time-series MILP to a peak preserving day-type MILP for 13 real Microgrid projects. The day-type approach reduces the computational time between 85% and almost 100% (from 2 h computational time to less than 1 min). At the same time the day-type approach keeps the objective function (OF) differences below 1.5% for 77% of the Microgrids. The other cases show OF differences between 6% and 13%, which can be reduced to 1.5% or less by applying a two-stage hybrid approach that designs the Microgrid based on down-sampled data and then performs a full-scale dispatch algorithm. This two stage approach results in 20–99% run-time savings.


Conference Papers | 2020

Power Systems in the context of district heating and cooling networks as an integrated energy system approach -Regulations and Business Cases within the IEA DHC Annex TS3

Kneiske T, Kallert A, Cronbach D, Yu Y, Schmidt D, Johannsen R, Sorknæs P, Muschick D, Ianakiev A, Svensson I, Schmidt R, Terreros O, Widl E. Power Systems in the context of district heating and cooling networks as an integrated energy system approach - Regulations and Business Cases within the IEA DHC Annex TS3. 48. CIGRE conference 2020. July 2020.

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Integrated energy systems 1 couples power systems, district heating and cooling (DHC), and gas grids, thereby enabling the storage and distribution of energy across different infrastructure types. Supply and demand follow different patterns in these different domains, which can lead to synergies in generation, storage and consumption, if planned and managed as one energy system. An integrated approach has the potential to increase reliability, flexibility and supply safety and efficiency. Moreover, network coupling increases local utilization of renewables, avoiding problems in the distribution networks, as well as transmission losses. In addition, hybrid energy networks are a promising opportunity to manage and mitigate temporal imbalances of supply and demand in energy systems with a high share of volatile renewables, mainly PV and wind energy. The IEA DHC Annex TS3 provides a holistic approach for designing and assessing hybridization schemes, focusing on the district heating and cooling (DHC) networks and considering both technical (system configuration, operational strategy) and strategic aspects (business models, regulatory frame). These aspects will be discussed within the framework of the IEA DHC Annex TS3 in order to promote the benefits of DHC networks in an integrated energy system. Furthermore we can establish a common direction for the development and implementation of hybrid energy concepts. The IEA DHC Annex TS3 will connect existing national and international projects and thus benefit from interdisciplinary experience and exchange. The primary result of the IEA DHC Annex TS3 will be a guidebook including:  Analyses of available technologies and synergies / application areas  An overview of international case studies including simulation scenarios 1 Different alternative notations can be found in literature, e.g. multi-energy networks, hybrid energy networks, sector coupling, multi-domain networks, cross energy systems. However, since no standard definition is available, those notations are used synonymously.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Prediction of slag related problems during fixed bed combustion of biomass by application of a multivariate statistical approach on fuel properties and burner technology

Rebbling A, Näzelius IL, Schwabl M, Feldmeier S, Schön C, Dahl J, Haslinger W, Boström D, Öhman M, Boman C. Prediction of slag related problems during fixed bed combustion of biomass by application of a multivariate statistical approach on fuel properties and burner technology. Biomass and Bioenergy 2020.137:105557.

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Slag is related to the melting properties of ash and is affected by both the chemical composition of the fuel ash and the combustion parameters. Chemical analysis of slag from fixed bed combustion of phosphorus-poor biomass show that the main constituents are Si, Ca, K, O (and some Mg, Al, and Na), which indicates that the slag consists of different silicates. Earlier research also points out viscosity and fraction of the ash that melts, as crucial parameters for slag formation. To the authors’ knowledge, very few of the papers published to this day discuss slagging problems of different pelletized fuels combusted in multiple combustion appliances. Furthermore, no comprehensive classification of both burner technology and fuel ash parameters has been presented in the literature so far. The objective of the present paper was therefore to give a first description of a qualitative model where ash content, concentrations of main ash forming elements in the fuel and type of combustion appliance are related to slagging behaviour and potential operational problems of a biomass fuel in different small- and medium scale fixed bed appliances.

Based on the results from the combustion of a wide range of pelletized biomass fuels in nine different burners, a model is presented for amount of slag formed and expected severity of operational problems. The model was validated by data collected from extensive combustion experiments and it can be concluded that the model predicts qualitative results.


Conference contributions | 2020

Primary- and Secondary Measures for Manually Fired Stoves - An Overview

Reichert G. Primary- and Secondary Measures for Manually Fired Stoves - An Overview. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Primary- and Secondary Measures for Manually Fired Stoves – An Overview

Reichert G. Primary- and Secondary Measures for Manually Fired Stoves – An Overview. 6th Central European Biomass Conference - KeepWarm/CleanAir workshop (oral presentation). 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Product flexibility from biomass steam gasification applying gas upgrading and synthesis processes

Binder M, Product flexibility from biomass steam gasification applying gas upgrading and synthesis processes. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Progressive Hedging for Stochastic Energy Management Systems: The Mixed-Integer Linear Case

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Horn M. Progressive Hedging for Stochastic Energy Management Systems: The Mixed-Integer Linear Case. Energy Systems. 2020 Aug 29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12667-020-00401-z

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Energy systems have increased in complexity in the past years due to the everincreasing integration of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar thermal or wind power. Modern energy systems comprise different energy domains such as electrical power, heating and cooling which renders their control even more challenging. Employing supervisory controllers, so-called energy management systems (EMSs), can help to handle this complexity and to ensure the energy-efficient and cost-efficient operation of the energy system. One promising approach are optimization-based EMS, which can for example be modelled as stochastic mixed-integer linear programmes (SMILP). Depending on the problem size and control horizon, obtaining solutions for these in real-time is a difficult task. The progressive hedging (PH) algorithm is a practical way for splitting a large problem into smaller subproblems and solving them iteratively, thus possibly reducing the solving time considerably. The idea of the PH algorithm is to aggregate the solutions of subproblems, where artificial costs have been added. These added costs enforce that the aggregated solutions become non-anticipative and
are updated in every iteration of the algorithm. The algorithm is relatively simple to implement in practice, re-using almost all of a possibly existing deterministic implementations and can be easily parallelized.
Although it has no convergence guarantees in the mixed-integer linear case, it can nevertheless be used as a good heuristic for SMILPs. Recent theoretical results shown that for applying augmented Lagrangian functions in the context of mixed-integer programmes, any norm proofs to be a valid penalty function. This is not true for squared norms, like the squared L 2 -norm that is used in the classical progressive hedging algorithm. Building on these theoretical results, the use of the L 1 and L-infinity-norm in the PH algorithm is investigated in this paper. In order to incorporate these into the algorithm an adapted multiplier update step is proposed. Additionally a heuristic extension of the aggregation step and an adaptive penalty parameter update scheme from the literature is investigated. The advantages of the proposed modifications are demonstrated by means of illustrative examples, with the application to SMILP-based EMS in mind.


Conference contributions | 2020

REFAWOOD - Reduction of ash-related problems in large-scale biomass combustion systems via resource efficient low-cost fuel additives

Sommersacher P. REFAWOOD - Reduction of ash-related problems in large-scale biomass combustion systems via resource efficient low-cost fuel additives. 6th Central European Biomass Conference CEBC 2020 (Oral Presentation). 2020.

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The incineration of waste wood is very often associated with ash-related problems (deposits, slagging and corrosion). This leads to short maintenance intervals, mainly needed to remove ash depositions, which result in significant power generation losses and high downtime costs. To avoid these problems, additives can be used, with particularly cost-effective additives being of great interest. On the one hand, the purpose of the additives is to reduce the Cl concentration in deposits on heat exchangers, which is the main cause for corrosion. On the other hand, the additives shall increase the ash melting temperature of deposits and hereby reduce deposit formation. In a first step the combustion behaviour of 3 different waste wood mixtures without and with the addition of various low-cost additives such as recycled gypsum, coal fly ash and iron sulphide with two different addition ratios were investigated in a laboratory reactor. Using the laboratory reactor allowed the determination of suitable additives and ratios of additivation for further investigations in the industrial plant. This approach represents a cost-effective and time-saving method for determining suitable additives and ratios of additivation. Based on the investigations carried out, the addition of 2% gypsum and 3% coal fly ash was recommended, since an improved ash melting behaviour can be expected with addition of gypsum and coal fly ash. These additives with the recommended mixing rates were then tested in a large scale CHP plant (a 40 MWth grate furnace with additional injection of wood dust above the grate). Extensive test runs were carried out without additive (as a reference), and with the additives focusing on dust formation (aerosols and total dust), deposit formation and the corrosion behaviour of superheaters. These investigations were accompanied by fuel and ash analyses (grate, cyclone and filter).


Conference contributions | 2020

Reliability of TGA data for characterization of alternative biomass feedstocks

Retschitzegger S, Kienzl N, Anca-Couce A, Tsekos C, Banks S, Kraia T, Zimbardi F, Funke A, Marques P. Reliability of TGA data for characterization of alternative biomass feedstocks. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Robust design of microgrids using a hybrid minimum investment optimization

Pecenak ZK, Stadler M, Mathiesen P, Fahy K, Kleissl J. Robust design of microgrids using a hybrid minimum investment optimization. Applied Energy. 2020;276:115400.

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Recently, researchers have begun to study hybrid approaches to Microgrid techno-economic planning, where a reduced model optimizes the DER selection and sizing is combined with a full model that optimizes operation and dispatch. Though providing significant computation time savings, these hybrid models are susceptible to infeasibilities, when the size of the DER is insufficient to meet the energy balance in the full model during macrogrid outages. In this work, a novel hybrid optimization framework is introduced, specifically designed for resilience to macrogrid outages. The framework solves the same optimization problem twice, where the second solution using full data is informed by the first solution using representative data to size and select DER. This framework includes a novel constraint on the state of charge for storage devices, which allows the representation of multiple repeated days of grid outage, despite a single 24-h profile being optimized in the representative model. Multiple approaches to the hybrid optimization are compared in terms of their computation time, optimality, and robustness against infeasibilities. Through a case study on three real Microgrid designs, we show that allowing optimizing the DER sizing in both stages of the hybrid design, dubbed minimum investment optimization (MIO), provides the greatest degree of optimality, guarantees robustness, and provides significant time savings over the benchmark optimization.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Scale-up methodology for automatic biomass furnaces

Barroso G, Nussbaumer T, Ulrich M, Reiterer T, Feldmeier S. Scale-up methodology for automatic biomass furnaces. Journal of the Energy Institute 2020.93:591-604.

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This work presents a methodology to perform the scale-up of a solid fuel furnace to a higher heat output with maintaining or improving the burn-out quality. As basis to derive the scale-up concept, an example of a 35 kW screw burner for biomass fuels is investigated. Based on the Pi-theorem, the relevant dimensionless parameters are derived and similarity rules for the scale-up are proposed as follows: As initial conditions, the height to diameter ratio of the combustion chamber, the mean Reynolds number in the combustion chamber and the mean square velocity through the combustion chamber shall be kept constant or in the case of the Reynolds number may also increase. Additionally the effective momentum flux ratio between the secondary air injected in the combustion chamber and the gases from the pyrolysis and gasification section also shall be kept constant to maintain the mixing conditions between combustible gases and secondary air. Finally the thermal surface load on the screw also shall be kept constant. The influence of different scale-up approaches on thermal surface load, gas velocity, pressure losses, Reynolds number and height-to-diameter ratio are compared and discussed and a scaling approach to increase the heat output from 35 kW to 150 kW is described. For a theoretical validation of the scale-up, CFD simulations are performed to investigate the predicted pollutant emissions and the pressure loss for the scaled 150 kW furnace.


Conference Papers | 2020

Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice

Zemann C, Gölles M, Horn M. Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice. 1st Virtual IFAC World Congress. 2020.

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A key factor for the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems is the capability of changing the applied feedstock during normal plant operation. This is only possible with the application of advanced control strategies that utilize knowledge about the state variables and varying fuel properties. However, neither the state variables nor the fuel properties are measurable during plant operation and, thus, need to be estimated. This contribution presents a method for the simultaneous real-time estimation of the state variables and the fuel properties in fixed-bed biomass boilers which is a novel approach in the field of biomass boilers. The method bases on an Extended Kalman Filter using a nonlinear dynamic model and measurement data from the combustion process. The estimated variables are the masses of dry fuel and water in the fuel bed as well as the fuel's bulk density, water content, chemical composition and lower heating value. The proposed method is easy to implement and requires moderate computational effort which increases the potential of its application at actual biomass boilers. The proposed method is verified with simulation studies and by test runs performed at a representative small-scale fixed-bed biomass boiler. The estimation results show a good agreement with the actual values, demonstrating that the proposed method is capable of accurately estimating the biomass boiler's state variables and simultaneously its fuel properties. For this reason, the presented method is a key technology to ensure the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice

Zemann C, Gölles M, Horn M. Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice. IFAC-PapersOnLine. 2020;53(2):12763-12770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2020.12.1920

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A key factor for the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems is the capability of changing the applied feedstock during normal plant operation. This is only possible with the application of advanced control strategies that utilize knowledge about the state variables and varying fuel properties. However, neither the state variables nor the fuel properties are measurable during plant operation and, thus, need to be estimated. This contribution presents a method for the simultaneous real-time estimation of the state variables and the fuel properties in fixed-bed biomass boilers which is a novel approach in the field of biomass boilers. The method bases on an Extended Kalman Filter using a nonlinear dynamic model and measurement data from the combustion process. The estimated variables are the masses of dry fuel and water in the fuel bed as well as the fuel’s bulk density, water content, chemical composition and lower heating value. The proposed method is easy to implement and requires moderate computational effort which increases the potential of its application at actual biomass boilers. The proposed method is verified with simulation studies and by test runs performed at a representative small-scale fixed-bed biomass boiler. The estimation results show a good agreement with the actual values, demonstrating that the proposed method is capable of accurately estimating the biomass boiler’s state variables and simultaneously its fuel properties. For this reason, the presented method is a key technology to ensure the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems.


Conference Papers | 2020

Soft-Sensor for the on-line estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass boilers with additional monitoring of the heat exchanger fouling

Niederwieser H, Zemann C, Gölles M, Reichhartinger M. Soft-Sensor for the On-Line Estimation of the Flue Gas Mass Flow in Biomass Boilers with Additional Monitoring of the Heat Exchanger Fouling. In Proceedings of the 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2020 (eEUBCE 2020). 2020. p. 280 - 284

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The flue gas mass flow is one of the fundamental quantities of the combustion process in biomass boilers. Since it directly relates to the enthalpy flow entering the heat exchanger, its knowledge is highly advantageous for a sophisticated load control of the biomass boiler. It also includes information regarding the primary and secondary air mass flows as well as the mass flows of potentially occurring leakage air and thermally decomposed fuel. However, in practical application it is not possible to obtain a reliable measurement of the flue gas mass flow. For this reason, this work presents a soft-sensor for the on-line estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass boilers. The approach is robust against fouling of the relevant boiler components and is based on standard measurements which are typically available in biomass boilers. In addition, the soft-sensor offers the possibility of monitoring the degree of heat exchanger fouling.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Surface characterization of ash-layered olivine from fluidized bed biomass gasification

Kuba M, Fürsatz K, Janisch D, Aziaba K, Chlebda D, Łojewska J, Forsberg F, Umeki K, Hofbauer H. Surface characterization of ash-layered olivine from fluidized bed biomass gasification. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2020

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The present study aims to present a comprehensive characterization of the surface of ash-layered olivine bed particles from dual fluidized bed gasification. It is well known from operation experience at industrial gasification plants that the bed material is activated during operation concerning its positive influence on gasification reactions. This is due to the built up of ash layers on the bed material particles; however, the chemical mechanisms are not well understood yet. Olivine samples from long-term operation in an industrial-scale gasification plant were investigated in comparison to fresh unused olivine. Changes of the surface morphology due to Ca-enrichment showed a significant increase of their surface area. Furthermore, the Ca-enrichment on the ash layer surface was distinctively associated to CaO being present. The presence of CaO on the surface was proven by adsorption tests of carbon monoxide as model compound. The detailed characterization contributes to a deeper understanding of the surface properties of ash layers and forms the basis for further investigations into their influence on gasification reactions.


Books / Bookchapters | 2020

Technische Optionen für die Umrüstung und Nachrüstung von Industrien mit Bioenergie

Rutz D, Janssen R, Reumerman P, Spekreijse J, Matschegg D, Bacovsky D, et al. Technische Optionen für die Umrüstung und Nachrüstung von Industrien mit Bioenergie. WIP Renewable Energies.2020

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