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Conference contributions | 2018

Performance improvement of model-based control strategies in large-scale solar plants and its implementation details

Innerhofer P, Unterberger V, Luidolt P, Lichtenegger K, Gölles M. Performance improvement of model-based control strategies in large-scale solar plants and its implementation details. 5th International Solar District Heating Conference SDH. Graz, Austria: 2018.

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Scientific Journals | 2018

Power to fuels: Dynamic modeling of a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor in lab-scale for Fischer Tropsch synthesis under variable load of synthesis gas

Seyednejadian S, Rauch R, Bensaid S, Hofbauer H, Weber G, Saracco G. Power to fuels: Dynamic modeling of a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor in lab-scale for Fischer Tropsch synthesis under variable load of synthesis gas. Apllied Sciences. 2018, 8(4): 514.

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This research developed a comprehensive computer model for a lab-scale Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) (0.1 m Dt and 2.5 m height) for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis under flexible operation of synthesis gas load flow rates. The variable loads of synthesis gas are set at 3.5, 5, 7.5 m3/h based on laboratory adjustments at three different operating temperatures (483, 493 and 503 K). A set of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in the form of mass transfer and chemical reaction are successfully coupled to predict the behavior of all the FT components in two phases (gas and liquid) over the reactor bed. In the gas phase, a single-bubble-class-diameter (SBCD) is adopted and the reduction of superficial gas velocity through the reactor length is incorporated into the model by the overall mass balance. Anderson Schulz Flory distribution is employed for reaction kinetics. The modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data. The results of dynamic modeling show that the steady state condition is attained within 10 min from start-up. Furthermore, they show that step-wise syngas flow rate does not have a detrimental influence on FT product selectivity and the dynamic modeling of the slurry reactor responds quite well to the load change conditions.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Reference Shaping for Model-Based Control of Biomass Grate Boilers.

Seeber R, Gölles M, Dourdoumas N, Horn M. Reference Shaping for Model-Based Control of Biomass Grate Boilers. Control Engineering Practice. 2019 Jan;82:173-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2018.10.006

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An established control strategy for biomass grate boilers based on a low-order nonlinear model is considered. Under ideal conditions, it achieves decoupled control of desired outputs by means of input–output linearization. The decoupling is gradually reduced and control performance deteriorates when actuator saturation occurs. This may be avoided by appropriately shaping the control strategy’s reference values. This contribution presents a method to do so by solving a sequence of linear programs. Its implementation requires the knowledge of typically unknown limits of mass-flows fed into the plant. An estimation strategy for these limits based on measurable quantities is thus proposed. Experimental data from three different scenarios is presented, in which the reference shaping improves tracking, mitigates wind-up phenomena and reduces emissions, respectively.


Scientific Journals | 2018

Tackling ammonia inhibition for efficient biogas production from chicken manure: Status and technical trends in Europe and China

Fuchs W, Wang X, Gabauer W, Ortner M, Li Z. Tackling ammonia inhibition for efficient biogas production from chicken manure: Status and technical trends in Europe and China (Review). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018;97:186-199.

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The increased global consumption of chicken products has resulted in the generation of huge amounts of manure. Numerous studies emphasized the large potential of this waste as an untapped source of renewable energy through anaerobic digestion (AD). However, intrinsic difficulties, in particular the high N content, induce instable process conditions, including the accumulation of intermediates, and foaming, which reduces methane yields. Such issues limit the widespread application of this energy-rich substrate for biogas production. The process inhibition by ammonia is usually prevented by reducing the concentration of chicken manure through dilution or by operating the plant considerably below its theoretical reactor capacity. However, this process compromises process efficiency, thereby increasing capital investments and operational costs. Another option to achieve optimal process performance is co-digestion with less N-rich materials. However, co-digestion also has its limitations due to the frequent unavailability of sufficient amounts of C-rich substrates. A series of promising technical solutions have been developed to overcome the aforementioned bottlenecks. Examples include stripping or membrane extraction as means to reduce ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Several full-scale plants employing ammonia removal techniques have been installed recently. Latest research also investigated the use of additives, such as zeolites and trace elements, as well as bioaugmentation, to mitigate ammonia inhibition. The current study reviews the state of technology as well as recent achievements and perspectives. It provides an overview of the different approaches to remove ammonia from AD-process and presents practical examples from China and Europe.


Technical Reports | 2018

The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse

Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Riepl R, Schipfer F, Zellinger M. The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse. BMVIT, Schriftenreihe 25/2018.

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Conference contributions | 2018

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae. presentation at the WSED, Wels, Austria, 01. March 2018.

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The present study examines the possible use of urban and rural traffic areas for producing biomass. Many of those areas (for example, parking lots at cinemas and shopping centers) are only intensively used during certain times. Most of the time those areas remain empty.
At the same time a major problem for large-scale implementation of renewable energy is the massive land use resulting from limited energy density of solar radiation and, in case of biomass production, low efficiency for utilization of solar radiation by plants. Additionally, renewable energies are often criticized for the fact that they require areas, which could also be used for food and feed production.
Therefore, it is an attractive idea to use some of the traffic areas that are lost for the ecosystem anyway for biomass production. This approach is novel that no data have been available yet. The aim of this work was therefore to develop technical solutions, to quantify the technical potential for this type of biomass production and, subsequently, for energy supply, based on data on the area utilization, climatic data and known properties of microalgae.
The work deals with the question of the technical potential for this approach in Austria. This question is
answered by a survey of the area data in Austria, the elaboration of technical systems for a possible implementation, as well as by calculating the biomass potential, based on simulation results. The data have been collected, analyzed and evaluated in a comprehensive literature search. The potential analysis provides an overview of the distribution of traffic areas in Austria and the resulting biomass potential. Thus, a list of possible areas including biomass and energy quantities is available.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Online experiments and modelling with a detailed reaction scheme of single particle biomass pyrolysis.

Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Scharler R. Online experiments and modelling with a detailed reaction scheme of single particle biomass pyrolysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. Available online 17 July 2017

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Detailed reaction schemes and experimental data for the online release of pyrolysis volatiles are required to gain a more fundamental understanding of biomass pyrolysis, which would in turn allow the process to be controlled in a more precise way and the development of more targeted applications. A detailed online characterisation of pyrolysis products has been conducted in single particle experiments with spruce pellets at different temperatures, obtaining a good closure of the elemental mass balances. The yields and online release of CO, CO2, H2O, CH4, other light hydrocarbons and total organic condensable species, as well as char yield and composition, can be predicted with a reasonable accuracy with the application of a single particle model, coupled with a detailed pyrolysis scheme, and a simple one-step scheme for tar cracking. In order to achieve it, improvements have been conducted in the pyrolysis scheme, mainly concerning the release of light hydrocarbons and char yield and composition. Deviations are still present in the different groups in which organic condensable species can be classified.


Technical Reports | 2017

2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers

Warner E, Bacovsky D, Schwab A. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. February 2017.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

A hybrid of winddiesel technology with biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

Nikparsa P, Rauch R, Mirzaei AA. A hybrid of winddiesel technology with biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Monatshefte für Chemie. 10 July 2017;1-10.

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The syngas mixture produced from biomass (bio-syngas) is characterized by a H2/CO molar ratio of 1.5 in this work, which is different from that of traditional syngas ratio of 2. Therefore a hybrid of winddiesel technology with bio-syngas conversion by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (WD-FT) on a cobalt based catalyst was investigated, for the first time, using a slurry reactor. The result from feeding this technology is compared with the direct converting biomass derived synthetic gas to fuels via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (BS-FT). Experiments were performed at different syngas composition (variation of H2/CO ratio), keeping the other parameters (temperature 230 °C; gas flow 5 Nm³/h, pressure 20 bar) constant. Comparison of the WD-FT with the BS-FT synthesis results displayed mass fraction of light hydrocarbons and higher catalytic stability and activity after 500 h. The olefin structures for the different product distributions, obtained from different reactions, are determined by ¹H NMR spectroscopy. Negligible amounts of iso-α-olefins were detected in the product of the WD-FT reaction. In the case of the alpha value, a slight change was observed between 0.93 and 0.92 for the BS-FT and WD-FT reaction.
 


Conference Papers | 2017

A novel approach for the implementation of TORrefaction in Residential and COMmunal heating Boilers (TORRECOMB)

Kourkoumpa DS, Kienzl N, Isemin R, Strasser C, Nikolopoulus N, Margaritis N, Panagiotis G. A novel approach for the implementation of TORrefaction in Residential and COMmunal heating Boilers (TORRECOMB). 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2017

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons (BTX/PAH) as Soot Precursors from Biomass Pyrolysis Products

Mehrabian R, Shiehnejadhesar A, Bahramian H, Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Hochenauer C, Scharler R. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons (BTX/PAH) as Soot Precursors from Biomass Pyrolysis Products. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). May 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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In this work a novel reaction mechanism for gas phase reactions has been developed to predict the formation of aromatic compounds from the pyrolysis products of woody biomass particles. The aromatic compounds are important for being main soot precursors as well as their toxic properties. The developed gas phase mechanism is validated with experimental data from literature as well as experimental data performed with a single particle reactor for three different pyrolysis temperatures, namely 550, 800 and 1000°C. A good agreement is achieved between model results and experimental data for the total yield of each main family of aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. phenolics, BTXs and PAHs.


Conference contributions | 2017

Abschätzung der Ertragssteigerung durch moderne Regelungsstrategien

Innerhofer P, Unterberger V, Gerardts B, Lichtenegger K, Gölles M. Abschätzung der Ertragssteigerung durch moderne Regelungsstrategien. 27. Symposium Thermische Solarenergie OTTI. Bad Staffelstein, Deutschland: 2017.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Acid base interaction and its influence on the adsorption kinetics and selectivity order of aromatic sulfur heterocycles adsorbing on Ag-Al2O3

Neubauer R, Husmann M, Weinlaender C, Kienzl N, Leitner E, Hochenauer C. Acid base interaction and its influence on the adsorption kinetics and selectivity order of aromatic sulfur heterocycles adsorbing on Ag-Al2O3. Chemical Engineering Journal. 1 February 2017;309: 840-849.

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Adsorptive desulfurization is a promising technology to provide sulfur free fuels for fuel cell based power units. In this work the adsorption kinetics of three different aromatic sulfur heterocycles was studied for Ag-Al2O3. The influence of individual as well as competitive adsorption on the selectivity order was investigated by equilibrium and breakthrough experiments. In these experiments a jet-A1 fuel enriched with benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) was used. The adsorption of aromatic sulfur heterocycles on Ag-Al2O3 proceeds via three different adsorption mechanisms. Within these mechanisms the π-interaction (π-Ag) and the direct sulfur-silver interaction (S-Ag) are significantly stronger in comparison to the acid base interaction (S-H). The results showed that the π-Ag and S-Ag interactions are the major adsorption mechanisms in the first stage, where film-diffusion limits the adsorption rate. In the second stage, the S-H interaction plays only an important role for BT, where intraparticle diffusion is the rate controlling step. The overall selectivity order was found to be BT > DBT > 4,6-DMDBT in the case of competitive adsorption for both equilibrium and breakthrough performance. The S-H contribution was related to incorporation of silver into blank γ-alumina, which significantly increased the overall acidity of the adsorbent.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications

Kraussler M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Bioresource Technology. August 2017;237: 39-46.

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Conference Papers | 2017

An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber

Loipersböck J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Scientific Journals | 2017

Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst.

Krycaa J, Priščák J, Łojewskac J, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2018, 346: 113-119.

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Substitution of fossil fuels for production of electricity, heat, fuels for transportation and chemicals can be realized using biomass steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB).

Interaction between biomass ash and bed material in a fluidized bed leads to transformation of the bed particle due to enrichment of components from the biomass ash resulting in the development of ash layers on the bed particle surface. These ash-rich particle layers enhance the catalytic activity of the bed material regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the reduction of tars.

The water-gas-shift reaction at conditions typical for dual fluidized bed biomass gasification at a temperature of 870 °C was investigated. Diffusion and heat transfer limitations were minimized using a lab-scale experimental set-up consisting of a gas mixing section and a quartz glass reactor in which the catalyst is investigated.

 

 

 


Conference Papers | 2017

Ash and bed material research in dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in lab- and industrial-scale

Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Ash and bed material research in dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in lab- and industrial-scale. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Assessment of correlations between tar and product gas composition in dual fluidized bed steam gasification for online tar prediction.

Benedikt F, Kuba M, Schmid JC, Müller S, Hofbauer H. Assessment of correlations between tar and product gas composition in dual fluidized bed steam gasification for online tar prediction. Applied Energy 2019;238:1138-1149.

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Thermochemical conversion of biomass feedstock via dual fluidized bed steam gasification is a well-proven technology used to produce a medium calorific product gas for various applications in the energy or transportation sector or for chemical syntheses. At unfavorable gasification conditions, undesirable high amounts of tar, which are aromatic hydrocarbons, are present in the product gas. High tar contents are a major problem, and they lead to uneconomic operation due to sharply diminished quality of product gas or unexpected plant shut downs due to fouling of the product gas coolers. Currently, tar content is measured with a discontinuous wet-chemical analysis method, which needs several hours of sample preparation to receive the final tar content. The aim of this study is to establish valid correlations between online measured permanent gas components in the product gas and its tar content. The results show that hydrogen, methane, and ethene concentrations are strongly related to the tar content in the product gas, while the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide content did not show a clear correlation. Using these correlations with online measured gas components provides the possibility of a direct and prompt response of a plant operator in case of unfavorable gasification conditions. Additionally, an optimization of the plant operation can be conducted and thereby, the operation hours and, consequently, the economic efficiency are improved.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Behavior of GCMS tar components in a water gas shift unit operated with tar-rich product gas from an industrial scale dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant

Kraussler M, Binder M, Hofbauer H. Behavior of GCMS tar components in a water gas shift unit operated with tar-rich product gas from an industrial scale dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 1 March 2017;7(1): 69-79.

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Other Presentations | 2017

Bidirektionale Wärmenetze: Regelung, Energiemanagement, Potenzial

Lichtenegger K, Leitner A, Moser A, Muschick D, Höftberger E, Gölles M. Bidirektionale Wärmenetze: Regelung, Energiemanagement, Potenzial. Workshop auf der Central European Biomass Conference 2017.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-combustion of carbonaceous wastes with coal

Onenc S, Retschitzegger S, Evic N, Kienzl N. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-combustion of carbonaceous waste with coal. ATHENS 2017 5th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management (Poster). June 2017, Athens, Greece.

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This study presents combustion behavior and emission results obtained for different fuels: poultry litter (PL) and its char (PLC), scrap tires (ST) and its char (STC) and blends of char/lignite (PLC/LIG and STC/LIG). The combustion parameters and emissions were investigated via a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method and experiments in a lab-scale reactor. Fuel indexes were used for the prediction of high temperature corrosion risks and slagging potentials of the fuels used. The addition of chars to lignite caused a lowering of the combustion reactivity (anti-synergistic effect). There was a linear correlation between the NOx emissions and the N content of the fuel. The form of S and the concentrations of alkali metals in the fuel had a strong effect on the extent of SO2 emissions. The use of PL and PLC in blends reduced SO2 emissions and sulphur compounds in the fly ash. The 2S/Cl ratio in the fuel showed that only PLC and STC/PLC would show a risk of corrosion during combustion. The ratio of basic to acidic oxides in fuel indicated that ST, STC and STC/LIG have low slagging potential. The molar (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg) ratio, which was used for PL, PLC and PLC containing blends, showed that the ash melting temperatures of these fuels would be higher than 1000 °C.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characteristics of adapted hydrogenotrophic community during biomethanation

Rachbauer L, Beyer R, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Characteristics of adapted hydrogenotrophic community during biomethanation. Science of The Total Environment. 1 October 2017;595: 912-919.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by Synechocystis salina from digestate supernatant

Kovalcik A, Meixner K, Mihalic M, Zeilinger W, Fritz I, Fuchs W, Kucharczyk P, Stelzer F, Drosg B. Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by Synechocystis salina from digestate supernatant. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 1 September 2017;102: 497-504.

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Other publication | 2017

Clean Air by Biomass - Demonstration of clean and efficient combustion of biomass

Klauser F, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Weissinger A. Clean Air by Biomass - Demonstration of clean and efficient combustion of biomass. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Other publication | 2017

CleanAir by Biomass - Status Quo Analysis of the Model Region

Klauser F, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Weissinger A, Haslinger W, Stressler H. CleanAir by Biomass - Status Quo Analysis of the Model Region. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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