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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Catalytic Efficiency of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves Evaluated by a Novel Measuring Methodology under Real-Life Operating Conditions

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Catalytic Efficiency of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves Evaluated by a Novel Measuring Methodology under Real-Life Operating Conditions. Renewable Energy, March 2018;117:300-313.

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Catalytic systems integrated in firewood stoves represent a potential secondary measure for emission reduction. However, the evaluation of catalytic efficiency is challenging since measurements, especially for PM emissions, upstream an integrated catalyst are not possible. Therefore, a special test facility, called “DemoCat”, was constructed which enabled parallel measurements in catalytically treated and untreated flue gas. The catalytic efficiency for CO, OGC and PM emissions was investigated under real-life operating conditions including ignition and preheating. The results confirmed a significant emission reduction potential (CO: > 95%, OGC: > 60%, PM: ∼30%). The conversion rates of CO and OGC emissions correlated with the space velocity and the coated area of honeycomb carriers which represent key parameters for the integration design. A quick response of the catalytic effect of around 5–12 min after ignition was observed when reaching 250 °C flue gas temperature at the catalyst. Most effective CO and OGC emission conversion was evident during the start-up and burn-out phase of a firewood batch. This reveals an important synergy for primary optimization which focuses particularly on the stretched intermediate phase of a combustion batch. The catalytic effect on PM emissions, especially on chemical composition, needs further investigations.


Conference contributions | 2012

Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment

Rixrath D, Piringer G, Ragoßnig AM, Meirhofer M. Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 18th of September 2012, Florence, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment

Rixrath D, Piringer G, Ragoßnig AM, Meirhofer M. Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 17th-19th of September 2012, Florence, Italy. (peer reviewed)

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Management of municipal and commercial waste in Austria frequently involves mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) followed by incineration. A middle-caloric MBT output stream (lower heating value (LHV) = 9.90 MJ/kg WW, particle size = 20-80 mm) with a high proportion of inert material like stones, bricks, and metals (40.5 %m) is currently incinerated. Under favorable market conditions, it could be economically advantageous to split off a low-caloric heavy fraction (HF) that can be landfilled and to incinerate only the remaining, lighter fraction (LF) with a higher heating value. This study analyzes the specific global-warming potential (100-year GWP per tonne of input waste) of such an additional separation step and of the subsequent treatment processes. Four treatment alternatives were considered: a reference scenario without separation and three separation scenarios – a near-infrared (NIR) sensor-based scenario, an X-ray-transmission (XRT) sensor-based scenario, and a mechanical separation scenario using a diagonal sifter (DS). To calculate the specific GWP, the analysis applied techniques from life-cycle assessment (LCA). Primary data were obtained from pilot-scale and full-scale separation experiments, and from equipment manufacturers. Commercial databases provided secondary data. The results consist of separate LCA models for each scenario, including credits for fossil fuels replaced by LF incineration and HF landfill gas utilization. When only direct separation-related emissions are considered, the DS separation has by far the lowest specific GWP, followed by NIR-based separation, and by XRT-based separation. Overall specific GWP is strongly influenced by the choice of separation technology. It is lowest for the XRT scenario, followed closely by the reference scenario, while the DS and NIR scenarios show considerably higher results. Results are dominated by the net emissions from LF incineration. While incineration emissions are largely compensated by credits from replaced fossil fuels, credits for landfill gas utilization are much smaller than direct landfilling emissions. The ranking of the separation scenarios is largely determined by three waste stream characteristics: the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon content and the LHV in the LF, and the degradable biogenic carbon content in the HF. Changes in important modeling assumptions leave the ranking between scenarios unchanged. It can be concluded that – given the right choice of
separation technology – a small positive effect of sorting on the overall specific GWP is feasible. This
work demonstrates that global warming effects of waste treatment decisions can be estimated and
considered early in the planning stage of treatment system design.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2014

Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in anaerobic digestion?

Ortner M, Rachbauer L, Somitsch W, Fuchs W. Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in anaerobic digestion? Appl Energy. 2014;126:190-8.

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Trace nutrients significantly affect the microbial metabolic activity within anaerobic digestion processes but always imply the risk of overdosing of heavy metals. In this study the applicability of a sequential extraction scheme established for soil and sediment samples on biogas slurries with different compositions was tested and compared to an adapted version of this extraction method. The analytical results proved the successful applicability of the developed analytical technique for the speciation of trace nutrients in anaerobic digestion systems. The procedure fulfills the basic requirements of reproducible data, a time-saving analytical approach and economic feasibility. Recovery rates of 90-110% were obtained for the most important trace elements Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni and Zn. However, it was demonstrated that the adapted method provides more reliable information about the bioavailable fractions and it is considered the more appropriate approach. Data on fractionation indicated that up to 76% of these essential trace nutrients might be present in an insoluble state. Depending on the specific trace element a significant fraction, from 30% to more than 70%, is not directly bioavailable. This important aspect should be considered to guarantee sufficient supply of the microbial consortium with trace elements and at the same time to avoid overdosage. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Other Presentations | 2013

Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in an AD process?

Ortner M, Rachbauer L, Somitsch W, Fuchs W. Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in an AD process? Bioenergy Conference 2013, 4th-6th of September 2013, Jyväskylä, Finnland.

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Other Presentations | 2014

Can bioavailability of trace elements be measured in AD systems?

Ortner M, Rachbauer L, Somitsch W, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Can bioavailability of trace elements be measured in AD systems? Biogas Science 2014, International Conference on Anaerobic Digestion 26th–30th of October 2014, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

BioMaxEff – Cost efficient biomass boiler systems with maximum annual efficiency and lowest emissions

Haslinger W, et al. BioMaxEff – Cost efficient biomass boiler systems with maximum annual efficiency and lowest emissions, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Biomassekleinfeuerungen – Überblick und Darstellung innovativer Entwicklungen

Haslinger W, Griesmayr S, Pointner CH, Friedl G. Biomassekleinfeuerungen – Überblick und Darstellung innovativer Entwicklungen, 8. Industrieforum Pellets 2008 / 8th Pellets Industry Forum 2008, 28th – 29th of October 2008, Stuttgart, Germany.

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This paper briefly discusses the relevance of small-scale biomass combustion systems for European renewable energy policy. Moreover, the state-of-the-art of modern small-scale biomass combustion systems is presented. The different technologies are reviewed regarding emissions and efficiency for different biomass. On-going developments and innovative approaches are presented and discussed.


Conference contributions | 2012

Biomasse F&E Roadmap „Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen“

Haslinger W, Höftberger E, Schmidl C, Strasser C, Wörgetter M, Kranzl L. Biomasse F&E Roadmap „Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen“, Highlights der Energieforschung. Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen 2012, 19th of April 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Biomasse der Zukunft – Bioenergie der Zukunft?

Wopienka E. Biomasse der Zukunft – Bioenergie der Zukunft? Internationale Konferenz auf Schloss Weinzierl 2015, 29th of Januar 2015, Wieselburg, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Biomasse befeuerte automatische Öfen mittels Thermoelektrik

Höftberger E. Biomasse befeuerte automatische Öfen mittels Thermoelektrik, RENEXPO 2012, 29th of November-1st of December 2012, Salzburg, Austria.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2016

Biomass-Based Heating and Hot Water Supply Systems for Prefabricated, High Energy Performance Houses: a Comparison of System Configurations and Control Strategies

Carlon E, Schwarz M, Prada A, Verma V, Baratieri M, Gasparella A, Schmidl C. Biomass-Based Heating and Hot Water Supply Systems for Prefabricated, High Energy Performance Houses: a Comparison of System Configurations and Control Strategies. 12th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2016 (full paper review and oral presentation). 22 May 2016, Aalborg, Denmark.

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Nowadays prefabricated houses are becoming increasingly popular, thanks to their low cost and high energy performance. Heating systems installed in these houses should be carefully designed and controlled, to ensure sufficient thermal comfort while maintaining low fuel consumptions. This study presents the simulation of different system configurations and control strategies for a pre-fabricated house, located in Lower Austria. The house is heated by a 6 kW pellet boiler directly connected to a floor heating system, in a configuration without buffer storage tank. Using the TRNSYS simulation suite, a coupled simulation of the house and its heating and hot water supply system was set up, calibrated and validated with reference to monitoring data. As monitoring data evidenced that the control strategy of the heating system is not ideal to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature during the whole day, two improved strategies were simulated over the heating season and evaluated in terms of thermal comfort, pellet consumption and boiler’s efficiency. Moreover, to better understand the influence of the system configuration, simulations have been repeated considering another heat distribution system (radiators instead of floor heating). Results show that the radiators’ network, if adequately controlled, reduces by 85% the total discomfort time. In addition, the pellet boiler mainly operates in load modulation regime, leading to lower pellet supply rates and therefore to lower pellet consumptions (18% less than floor heating). However, the lower operational loads and frequent ignitions result in a slightly lower efficiency of the pellet boiler (4% less than the configuration with floor heating.


Conference contributions | 2012

Biomass steam gasification - A platform for synthesis gas applications

Rauch R. Biomass steam gasification - A platform for synthesis gas applications, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin

Anca-Couce A, Tsekos C, Retschitzegger S, Zimbardi F, Funke A, Banks S, Kraia T, Marques P, Scharler R, de Jong W, Kienzl N. Biomass pyrolysis TGA assessment with an international round robin.Fuel.2020;276:118002.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118002

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The large variations found in literature for the activation energy values of main biomass compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in pyrolysis TGA raise concerns regarding the reliability of both the experimental and the modelling side of the performed works. In this work, an international round robin has been conducted by 7 partners who performed TGA pyrolysis experiments of pure cellulose and beech wood at several heating rates. Deviations of around 20 – 30 kJ/mol were obtained in the activation energies of cellulose, hemicellulose and conversions up to 0.9 with beech wood when considering all experiments. The following method was employed to derive reliable kinetics: to first ensure that pure cellulose pyrolysis experiments from literature can be accurately reproduced, and then to conduct experiments at different heating rates and evaluate them with isoconversional methods to detect experiments that are outliers and to validate the reliability of the derived kinetics and employed reaction models with a fitting routine. The deviations in the activation energy values for the cases that followed this method, after disregarding other cases, were of 10 kJ/mol or lower, except for lignin and very high conversions. This method is therefore proposed in order to improve the consistency of data acquisition and kinetic analysis of TGA for biomass pyrolysis in literature, reducing the reported variability.


Conference contributions | 2013

Biomass Price Volatility - Analysis of the Historic Biomass and Energy Price volatility in the Austrian Market

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Morawetz U, Schmidt J, Schmid E. Biomass Price Volatility - Analysis of the Historic Biomass and Energy Price volatility in the Austrian Market, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1721-1727.

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Several energy and agricultural commodities have experienced higher price volatility in recent years. Hence, the interest in food and energy security issues as well as price volatility has increased, particularly since the rise in food and energy commodity prices in 2007/2008. Volatility is associated with risk since higher price volatility leads to additional costs that are often shared and transmitted along the supply chain to the final consumers. Volatility of woody biomass prices is also possibly higher due to increased market dynamics and integration as well as renewable energy policy intervention. We compute historic price volatility using the standard deviation of log returns as well as univariate GARCH models and empirically analyze whether or not price volatility of woody biomass commodities has increased in recent years. We also compare the historic price volatility of woody biomass to the price volatility of agricultural commodities and fossil fuels. Results indicate that the price volatility of some woody biomass commodities has increased, but it is still lower than of agricultural biomass and fossil fuels.


Conference contributions | 2014

Biomass in the Common Roadmap

Haslinger W. Biomass in the Common Roadmap, Annual Event of European Technology Platform Renewable Heating and Cooling 2014, 22nd of May 2014, Brussels, Belgium.

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Other publication | 2014

Biomass Gasification for Synthesis Gas Production and Applications of the Syngas

Rauch R, Hrbek J, Hofbauer H. Biomass gasification for synthesis gas production and applications of the syngas. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment. 2014;3(4):343-62.

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Synthesis gas from biomass can be produced and utilized in different ways. Conversion of biomass to synthesis gas can be done either in fluidized bed or entrained flow reactors. As gasification agent oxygen, steam, or mixtures are used. The most common use of biomass gasification in the last decades has been for heat and/or power production. Nowadays, the importance of transportation fuels from renewables is increased due to environmental aspects and growing fossil fuels prices. That is why the production of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, methanol, mixed alcohols, substitute natural gas (SNG), and hydrogen from biomass is now in focus of view. The most innovative and interesting ways of synthesis gas utilization and projects, BioTfueL or GoBiGas, BioLiq, Choren, etc. are discussed here. Further the microchannel technology by Oxford Catalysts and distributed production of SNG in decentral small scale are presented. The synthesis platform in Güssing, Austria is also presented. The FT liquids, hydrogen production, mixed alcohols, and BioSNG, these are the projects associated with the FICFB gasification plant in Güssing. Also the principle and examples of sorption-enhanced reforming to adjust H2/CO ratio in product gas during the gasification is described. Finally, in the conclusion also an outlook for the thermochemical pathway to transportation fuels is given. WIREs Energy Environ 2014, 3:343-362. doi: 10.1002/wene.97 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Conference contributions | 2008

Biomass Gasification CHP Plant Güssing: Research Centre for 2nd Generation Biofuels

Aichernig C, Hofbauer H, Pfeifer CH, Rauch R. Biomass Gasification CHP Plant Güssing: Research Centre for 2nd Generation Biofuels, 16th European Biomass Conference 2008, 2nd-6th of June 2008, Valencia, Spain. p 731-735.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Biomass combustion technologies – state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture)

Obernberger I. Biomass combustion technologies - state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture), Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2014

Biomass CHP Oberwart: Status and Future Potentials

Wilk V, Bosch K, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Biomass CHP Oberwart: Status and Future Potentials, 4th International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (iSGA-4) 2014, 2nd-5th of September 2014, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Biomass CHP Oberwart –Production of heat, power and valuable gases

Rauch R. Biomass CHP Oberwart –Production of heat, power and valuable gases, 4th Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Biological biogas upgrading capacity of a hydrogenotrophic community in a trickle-bed reactor

Rachbauer L, Voitl G, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Biological biogas upgrading capacity of a hydrogenotrophic community in a trickle-bed reactor. Applied Energy. 15 October 2016;180: 483-490.

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Contributions at other events | 2014

Biohydrogen Production Based on the Catalyzed Water Gas Shift Reaction in Wood Gas

Fail, S. Biohydrogen Production Based on the Catalyzed Water Gas Shift Reaction in Wood Gas, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2014.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Biograce-II - Harmonised Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity, Heating and Cooling from Biomass

Ludwiczek N, Bacovsky D, Neeft J. Biograce-II - Harmonised Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity, Heating and Cooling from Biomass, 22nd European Biomass Conference 2014, 23rd-26th of June 2014, Hamburg, Germany. p 1359-1361.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Biofuels RD&D in BIOENERGY 2020+

Bacovsky D. Biofuels RD&D in BIOENERGY 2020+, Eco-Mobility Conference 2013, 3rd-4th of October 2013, Vienna, Austria.

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