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Contributions at other events | 2013

Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons from Biomass Gasification Modeling and Experimental Study

Sadooghi, P. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons from Biomass Gasification Modeling and Experimental Study, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Hydrogen production from biomass: The behavior of impurities over a CO shift unit and a biodiesel scrubber used as a gas treatment stage

Loipersböck J, Lenzi M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Hydrogen production from biomass: The behavior of impurities over a CO shift unit and a biodiesel scrubber used as a gas treatment stage. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 22 June 2017; 1-6.

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Most of the hydrogen produced is derived from fossil fuels. Bioenergy2020+ and TU Wien have been working on hydrogen production from biomass since 2009. A pilot plant for hydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock was installed onsite using a fluidized bed biomass gasifier in Güssing, Austria. In this work, the behavior of impurities over the gas conditioning stage was investigated. Stable CO conversion and hydration of sulfur components could be observed. Ammonia, benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and sulfur reduction could be measured after the biodiesel scrubber. The results show the possibility of using a commercial Fe/Cr-based CO shift catalyst in impurity-rich gas applications. In addition to hydrogen production, the gas treatment setup seems to also be a promising method for adjusting the H2 to CO ratio for synthesis gas applications.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification

Kraussler M, Binder M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy. 24 December 2016;

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Scientific Journals | 2018

Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification

Kraussler M, Binder M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy. April 2018, 111: 320-329.

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Dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification generates a high calorific, practically nitrogen-free product gas with a volumetric H2 content of about 40%. Therefore, this could be a promising route for a polygeneration concept aiming at the production of valuable gases (for example H2), electricity, and heat. In this paper, a lab-scale process chain, based on state of the art unit operations, which processed a tar-rich product gas from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant, is investigated regarding H2 production within a polygeneration concept. The lab-scale process chain employed a water gas shift step, two gas scrubbing steps, and a pressure swing adsorption step. During the investigations, a volumetric H2 concentration of 99.9% with a specific H2 production of 30 g kg−1 biomass was reached. In addition, a valuable off-gas stream with a lower heating value of 7.9 MJ m−3 was produced. Moreover, a techno-economic assessment shows the economic feasibility of such a polygeneration concept, if certain feed in tariffs for renewable electricity and H2 exist. Consequently, these results show, that the dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification technology is a promising route for a polygeneration concept, which aims at the production of H2, electricity, and district heat.


Conference contributions | 2014

Hydroprocessing and Catalytic Cracking of Fischer-Tropsch Biowaxes to Biokerosene

Rauch R, Jovcic M, Aichernig C, Ililopoulou E, Heracleous E, Lapppas AA. Hydroprocessing and Catalytic Cracking of Fischer-Tropsch Biowaxes to Biokerosene, Processing Technologies for the Forest and Biobased Products Industries PTF BPI 2014, 24th-25th of September 2014, Kuchl, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Hydroprocessing of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes to 2nd generation biofuels

Schablitzky H, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Hydroprocessing of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes to 2nd generation biofuels, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Deutschland.

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Upgrading of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) biowaxes to second-generation biofuels via hydroprocessing is the final
step for increasing the fuel amount of the overall biomass conversion route: gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, FT synthesis, and hydroprocessing. The typical FT product portfolio consists of high molecular weight paraffinic waxes as the main product and FT fuels in the diesel and naphtha boiling range. OMV's objective and contribution to the project focus on achieving coprocessing of FT biowaxes with fossil feedstock using existing hydrotreating plants of crude oil refineries. Various test runs have been examined with a conventional refining catalyst under mild conditions (380–390°C, 5.8 MPa; WHSV, 0.7–1.3 h−1) in a pilot plant. Pure FT biowax is converted to gases, fuels, and an oil/waxy residue in a fixed-bed reactor with a porous catalyst layer technology. The presence of hydrogen in the reaction chamber reduces the fast deactivation of the catalyst caused by the formation of a coke layer around the catalyst particle surface and saturates cracked hydrocarbon fragments. Another approach is the creation of synthetic biodiesel components with excellent fuel properties for premium fuel
application. Basically, premium diesel fuel differs from standard diesel quality by cetane number and cold flow
properties. Hydroprocessed synthetic biodiesel (HPFT diesel) has compared to conventional diesel advantages in many aspects. Depending on the catalyst selected, premium diesel quality can be obtained by shifting cold flow
operability properties of HPFT fuels to a range capable even under extreme cold conditions. In addition, a highquality kerosene fraction is obtained to create bio jet fuels with an extremely deep freezing point, as low as −80°C. The isomerization degree, as well as the carbon number distribution of high paraffinic profile, and the branching degree have a major impact on the cold flow properties and cetane number. FT diesel has, compared to HPFT diesel, a slightly higher derived cetane number (DCN>83) and a cloud point of −9°C, whereas HPFT diesel reaches values as low as −60°C. Although the HPFT naphtha obtained consists of high amounts of isoparaffins, the RON/ MON values are comparable to fossil straight-run naphtha. The reason is that the branching degree of isoparaffins from the naphtha fraction is not sufficiently high enough to reach the typical octane number values of gasoline products delivered at filling stations. Assuming the goal of launching a premium biodiesel or biokerosene fuel to the market, these hydroprocessed synthetic biofuels from FT biowaxes are ideal blending components.


Conference Papers | 2016

Hythane from biomass steam gasification as natural gas substitute in industrial applications

Kraussler M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. Hythane from biomass steam gasification as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Biorestec (poster). October 2016, Sitges, Spain.

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Technical Reports | 2016

IEA Bioenergy Countries´ Report

Bacovsky D, Dissauer C, Enigl M, Ludwiczek N, Pointner C, Sonnleitner A, Verma VK. IEA Bioenergy Countries´ Report. IEA Bioenergy Countries´ Report. August 2016.

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Technical Reports | 2017

IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Report on State of the Technology of Algae Bioenergy

Bacovsky D, Sonnleitner A, Laurens L, McMillan JD. IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Report on State of the Technology of Algae Bioenergy. 5th Central European Biomass Conference, Workshop Highlights of Bioenergy Research 2017 (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Impact of firebed temperature on PM1 formation in a small-scale biomass furnace

Gehrig M, Pelz S, Thorwarth H, Haslinger W, Jaeger D. Impact of firebed temperature on PM1 formation in a small-scale biomass furnace, International Aerosol Conference 2014, 31st of August-5th of September 2014, Busan, Korea.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Impact of Na Promoter on Structural Properties and Catalytic Performance of CoNi/Al2O3 Nanocatalysts for the CO Hydrogenation Process: Fischer–Tropsch Technology

Nikparsa P, Mirzaei AA, Rauch R. Impact of Na Promoter on Structural Properties and Catalytic Performance of CoNi/Al2O3 Nanocatalysts for the CO Hydrogenation Process: Fischer–Tropsch Technology. Catalysis Letters. January 2016;146(1): 61-71.

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Scientific Journals | 2018

Impact of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves on Emissions under Real-Life Operating Conditions

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Impact of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves on Emissions under Real-Life Operating Conditions. Fuel Processing Technology. 2018; 117: 300-313.

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Catalytic systems integrated in firewood stoves represent a secondary measure for emission reduction. This study evaluates the impact on emissions of two types of honeycomb catalysts integrated in different firewood stoves. The tests were conducted under real-life related testing conditions. The pressure drop induced by the catalyst's carrier geometry affects primary combustion conditions which can influence the emissions. A negative primary effect reduces the catalytic efficiency and has to be considered for developing catalyst integrated solutions. However, a significant net emission reduction was observed. The ceramic catalyst reduced CO emissions by 83%. The metallic catalyst reduced CO emissions by 93% which was significantly better compared to the ceramic catalyst. The net emission reduction of OGC (~30%) and PM (~20%) was similar for both types of catalysts. In most cases, the “Ecodesign” emission limit values, which will enter into force in 2022 for new stoves, were met although the ignition and preheating batches were respected. PM emission composition showed a lower share of elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with integrated catalyst. However, no selectivity towards more reduction of EC or OC was observed. Further investigations should evaluate the long term stability under real-life operation in the field and the effect of the catalyst on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Impact of residual fuel ash layers on the catalytic activation of K-feldspar regarding the water–gas shift reaction

Fürsatz K, Kuba M, Janisch D, Aziaba K, Hammerl C, Chlebda D, Łojewska J, Hofbauer H. Impact of residual fuel ash layers on the catalytic activation of K-feldspar regarding the water–gas shift reaction. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2020

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Interaction of biomass ash and bed materials in thermochemical conversion in fluidized beds leads to changes of the bed particle surface due to ash layer formation. Ash components present on the bed particle surface strongly depend on the ash composition of the fuel. Thus, the residual biomass used has a strong influence on the surface changes on bed particles in fluidized bed conversion processes and, therefore, on the catalytic performance of the bed material layers. Ash layer formation is associated with an increase in the catalytic activity of the bed particles in gasification and plays a key role in the operability of different biomass fuels. The catalytic activation over time was observed for K-feldspar used as the bed material with bark, chicken manure, and a mixture of bark and chicken manure as fuels. The changes on the bed material surfaces were further characterized by SEM/EDS and BET analyses. Raman, XPS, and XRD analyses were used to characterize the crystal phases on the bed material surface. An increase in surface area over time was observed for K-feldspar during the interaction with biomass ash. Additionally, a more inhomogeneous surface composition for fuels containing chicken manure in comparison to pure bark was observed. This was due to the active participation of phosphorus from the fuel ash in the ash transformation reactions leading to their presence on the particle surface. A decreased catalytic activity was observed for the same BET surface area compared to bark combustion, caused by the different fuel ash composition of chicken manure.


Scientific Journals | 2019

Implementation and long term experiences with a continuous hygienisation process in food industry – A case study

Wöss D, Ortner M, Mensik J, Kirchmayr R, Schumergruber A, Pröll T. Implementation and long term experiences with a continuous hygienisation process in food industry – A case study. Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification 2019;137:100-107.

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A three tonne/hour batch-type hygienisation process for animal waste was replaced by a fully continuous process including heat integration. The plant is embedded into a pig abattoir including an anaerobic digestion (biogas) plant and gas-engine-based combined heat and power (CHP) production. Pre-heating is done in a series of four tube bundle apparatuses with heat transferred from the hot treated animal waste leaving the hygienisation plant. A closed water loop is used for heat transfer in this heat recovery arrangement. After pre-heating, the feed passes a second series of four tube bundles operated with heat from the biogas CHP plant in order to meet a target temperature of 72 °C at the inlet of the continuous hygienisation section. The material leaving the tube section is finally cooled in a series of four tube bundles and provides heat for pre-heating the feed before it is directed into the biogas plant. The process was started up in 2011 and monitoring results are be presented from 2011 to 2016. With the implementation of the continuous process, energy consumption of the hygienisation step was reduced by 64% for thermal and by 69% for electric energy.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Implementation of a firebed cooling device and its influence on emissions and combustion parameters at a residential wood pellet boiler

Gehrig M, Pelz SK, Jaeger D, Hofmeister G, Groll A, Thorwarth H, Haslinger W. Implementation of a firebed cooling device and its influence on emissions and combustion parameters at a residential wood pellet boiler. Applied Energy. 01 December 2015;159: 310-316.

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This study investigates the general concept of reduced firebed temperatures in residential wood pellet boilers. Residential wood pellet boiler development is more and more concerned with inorganic aerosols characterized by a temperature-dependent release from the firebed. Hence, different concepts are applied aiming to reduce firebed temperatures. Unfortunately, these concepts influence not only firebed temperatures, but also other important parameters like air flow rates which may cause unwanted side effects with respect to combustion quality or efficiency. Thus, a new approach was developed solely affecting firebed temperature by implementing a water-based firebed cooling in a 12 kW underfeed pellet boiler. The effectiveness of the cooling was monitored by comprehensive temperature measurement in the firebed. The cooling capacity ranged from 0.4 kW to 0.5 kW resulted in a significant decrease of firebed temperatures. Gaseous emissions remain stable showing no significant changes in major components (O2, CO2, NOx). Furthermore, CO emissions were even reduced significantly by the activated cooling, which was supposedly caused by a stabilized devolatilization due to the firebed cooling. Moreover, the temperature-dependent release of aerosol forming elements was influenced at activated firebed cooling, which is proved by a decrease of 17 wt% of dust (Total Suspended Particles; TSP). At the same time the gaseous emissions of HCl increase, supposedly by a reduced potassium release from the firebed to the gas phase and a subsequently different particle formation. The general concept of reduced firebed temperatures proved to be successful decreasing overall aerosol emissions without impacting combustion quality.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Implementing an advanced waste separation step in an MBT plant: assessment of technical, economic and environmental impacts

Meirhofer M, Piringer G, Rixrath D, Sommer M, Ragossnig AM. Implementing an advanced waste separation step in an MBT plant: Assessment of technical, economic and environmental impacts. Waste Management and Research. 2013;31(10 SUPPL.):35-45.

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Heavy fractions resulting from mechanical treatment stages of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants are posing very specific demands with regard to further treatment (large portions of inert and high-caloric components). Based on the current Austrian legal situation such a waste stream cannot be landfilled and must be thermally treated. The aim of this research was to evaluate if an inert fraction generated from this waste stream with advanced separation technologies, two sensor-based [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), X-ray transmission (XRT)] and two mechanical systems (wet and dry) is able to be disposed of. The performance of the treatment options for separation was evaluated by characterizing the resulting product streams with respect to purity and yield. Complementing the technical evaluation of the processing options, an assessment of the economic and global warming effects of the change in waste stream routing was conducted. The separated inert fraction was evaluated with regard to landfilling. The remaining high-caloric product stream was evaluated with regard to thermal utilization. The results show that, in principal, the selected treatment technologies can be used to separate high-caloric from inert components. Limitations were identified with regard to the product qualities achieved, as well as to the economic expedience of the treatment options. One of the sensor-based sorting systems (X-ray) was able to produce the highest amount of disposeable heavy fraction (44.1%), while having the lowest content of organic (2.0% Cbiogenic per kg waste input) components. None of the high-caloric product streams complied with the requirements for solid recovered fuels as defined in the Austrian Ordinance on Waste Incineration. The economic evaluation illustrates the highest specific treatment costs for the XRT (€23.15 per t), followed by the NIR-based sorting system (€15.67 per t), and the lowest costs for the air separation system (€10.79 per t). Within the ecological evaluation it can be shown that the results depend strongly on the higher heating value of the high caloric light fraction and on the content of Cbiogenic of the heavy fraction. Therefore, the XRT system had the best results for the overall GWP [-14 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq) per t of input waste] and the NIR-based the worst (193 kg CO2 eq per t of input waste). It is concluded that three of the treatment options would be suitable under the specific conditions considered here. Of these, sensor-based sorting is preferable owing to its flexibility. © The Author(s) 2013.


Conference contributions | 2013

Improvement of real life operation performance of residential wood combustion

Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Aigenbauer S, Figl F, Kirchhof JM, Moser W, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Verma V, Wöhler M. Improvement of real life operation performance of residential wood combustion, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Improvement of the accuracy of short-term corrosion probe measurements by addition of a mass loss probe

Retschitzegger S, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Improvement of the accuracy of short-term corrosion probe measurements by addition of a mass loss probe, Proc. of the Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2014, 26th-31st of October 2014, Snowbird, USA.

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Scientific Journals | 2018

Improving exploitation of chicken manure via two-stage anaerobic digestion with an intermediate membrane contactor to extract ammonia

Wang X, Gabauer W, Li Z, Ortner M, Fuchs W. Improving exploitation of chicken manure via two-stage anaerobic digestion with an intermediate membrane contactor to extract ammonia. Bioresource Technology 2018;368:811-814.

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This study describes a modified process of ammonia release through pre-hydrolysis – ammonia removal via membrane contactor – methanization for counteracting ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of chicken manure. In the pre-hydrolysis step, ammonia was rapidly released within the first 3–5 days. 78%-83% of the total nitrogen was finally converted into total ammonia/ammonium (TAN) with volatile fatty acids concentration of approximately 300 g/kg·VS. In the ammonia removal process, diluting the hydrolyzed chicken manure to 1:2, the TAN could be reduced to 2 g/kg in 21 h when pH was increased to 9. The final BMP test of chicken manure verified that lower TAN concentration (decreased to 2 g/kg) significantly reduced inhibitory effects, obtaining a high methane yield of 437.0 mL/g·VS. The investigations underlined several advantages of this modified process.


Conference contributions | 2014

Improving small scale combustion systems for better air quality

Schmidl C, Moser W, Reichert G. Improving small scale combustion systems for better air quality, TERMICA DA BIOMASSE E QUALITÀ DELL’ARIA 2014, 25th of June 2014, Udine, Italy.

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Conference Papers | 2016

Improving the propanol yield of mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam gasification

Binder M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Improving the propanol yield of mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam gasification. iSGA 2016 - 5th International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (invited lecture). November/December 2016, Busan, Korea.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

In vitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies

Jalava PI, Happo MS, Kelz J, Brunner T, Hakulinen P, Mäki-Paakkanen J, et al. Invitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies. Atmos Environ. 2012;50:24-35.

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Residential wood combustion causes major effects on the air quality on a global scale. The ambient particulate levels are known to be responsible for severe adverse health effects that include e.g. cardio-respiratory illnesses and cancer related effects, even mortality. It is known that biomass combustion derived emissions are affected by combustion technology, fuel being used and user-related practices. There are also indications that the health related toxicological effects are influenced by these parameters. This study we evaluated toxicological effects of particulate emissions (PM 1) from seven different residential wood combusting furnaces. Two appliances i.e. log wood boiler and stove represented old batch combustion technology, whereas stove and tiled stove were designated as new batch combustion as three modern automated boilers were a log wood boiler, a woodchip boiler and a pellet boiler. The PM 1 samples from the furnaces were collected in an experimental setup with a Dekati ® gravimetric impactor on PTFE filters with the samples being weighed and extracted from the substrates and prior to toxicological analyses. The toxicological analyses were conducted after a 24-hour exposure of the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to four doses of emission particle samples and analysis of levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, chemokine MIP-2, cytotoxicity with three different methods (MTT, PI, cell cycle analysis) and genotoxicity with the comet assay. In the correlation analysis all the toxicological results were compared with the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples induced dose-dependent increases in the studied parameters. Combustion technology greatly affected the emissions and the concomitant toxicological responses. The modern automated boilers were usually the least potent inducers of most of the parameters while emissions from the old technology log wood boiler were the most potent. In correlation analysis, the PAH and other organic composition and inorganic ash composition affected the toxicological responses differently. In conclusion, combustion technology largely affects the particulate emissions and their toxic potential this being reflected in substantially larger responses in devices with incomplete combustion. These differences become emphasized when the large emission factors from old technology appliances are taken into account. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Conference Papers | 2019

Increased economic efficiency of dual fluidized bed plants via model-based control

Nigitz T, Gölles M, Aichernig C, Schneider S, Hofbauer H, Horn M. Increased economic efficiency of dual fluidized bed plants via model-based control. In 27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. 2019. p. 533 - 538 https://doi.org/10.5071/27thEUBCE2019-2BO.6.5

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Sustainable technologies can hardly compete with fossil-based technologies in terms of economic efficiency. One sustainable technology with special relevance due to its wide range of application and industrial readiness is biomass gasification using a dual fluidized bed (DFB). The economic challenges of a DFB gasification plant are addressed without constructional measures by adapting a current control strategy. This paper proposes a model-based control strategy aiming for increased economic efficiency of a DFB gasification plant considering exemplarily the “HGA Senden” in Ulm, Germany. A process analysis reveals high potential for improvement at the current control strategy for the synchronization of product gas production and utilization. A significant surplus of product gas is burned in an auxiliary boiler just for synchronization, and regular manual adjustments by the plant operators at the fuel feed are necessary. The model-based control strategy synchronizes by actuating the auxiliary boiler and the fuel feed simultaneously. The model-based control strategy is experimentally validated for over one month at the “HGA Senden” proofing a significant increase in economic efficiency. So, the economic efficiency of this technology for the sustainable production of energy and products is increased by model-based control.


Conference contributions | 2020

Individual heat management in the living room

Schwabl M. Individual heat management in the living room. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Influence of ash forming elements from biogenous residues on fluidized bed conversion processes

Fürsatz K, Influence of ash forming elements from biogenous residues on fluidized bed conversion processes. 6th Central Eurpean Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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