Sortierung Titel Year

Publikationen


Peer-reviewed publications | 2013

Fischer Tropsch Synthesis to Biofuels (BtL Process)

Rauch R, Kiennemann A, Sauciuc A. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis to Biofuels (BtL Process). The role of catalysis for the sustainable production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals. ISBN 978-0-444-56330-9 2013:397-443.

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Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is one option to produce liquid transportation fuels from carbon-containing feedstocks. In the past, FT synthesis was used mainly to convert coal or natural gas to diesel and gasoline. In the last decade, much R&D effort has been made to use this technology to convert biomass to a high-quality transportation fuel. In this chapter, the technology for BtL (conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels over FT synthesis) is described, from synthesis gas production including requirements on the gas quality to a detailed description of the FT synthesis itself. The main focus of this chapter is to give an overview of the types of catalysts, also including their preparation, reduction, and aging; the types of FT reactors; and also the reaction conditions including kinetic laws and mechanistic proposals.


Technical Reports | 2019

Fischer-Tropsch products from biomass-derived syngas and renewable hydrogen

Gruber H, Groß P, Rauch R, Reichhold A, Zweiler R, Aichernig C, Müller S, Ataimisch N, Hofbauer H. Fischer-Tropsch products from biomass-derived syngas and renewable hydrogen. 2019.

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Global climate change will make it necessary to transform transportation and mobility away from what we know now towards a sustainable, flexible, and dynamic sector. A severe reduction of fossil-based CO2 emissions in all energy-consuming sectors will be necessary to keep global warming below 2 °C above preindustrial levels. Thus, long-distance transportation will have to increase the share of renewable fuel consumed until alternative powertrains are ready to step in. Additionally, it is predicted that the share of renewables in the power generation sector grows worldwide. Thus, the need to store the excess electricity produced by fluctuating renewable sources is going to grow alike. The “Winddiesel” technology enables the integrative use of excess electricity combined with biomass-based fuel production. Surplus electricity can be converted to H2 via electrolysis in a first step. The fluctuating H2 source is combined with biomass-derived CO-rich syngas from gasification of lignocellulosic feedstock. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis converts the syngas to renewable hydrocarbons. This research article summarizes the experiments performed and presents new insights regarding the effects of load changes on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Long-term campaigns were carried out, and performance-indicating parameters such as per-pass CO conversion, product distribution, and productivity were evaluated. The experiments showed that integrating renewable H2 into a biomass-to-liquid Fischer-Tropsch concept could increase the productivity while product distribution remains almost the same. Furthermore, the economic assessment performed indicates good preconditions towards commercialization of the proposed system.


Conference contributions | 2015

Forecasting the Pellet Boiler Stock in Austria until 2030 and Assessing the Potential to Reduce GHG Emissions and Substitute Fossil Fuels

Karner K, Schmid E, Strasser C, Kristöfel C, Enigl M. Forecasting the Pellet Boiler Stock in Austria until 2030 and Assessing the Potential to Reduce GHG Emissions and Substitute Fossil Fuels, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Frauen‐ und Familienförderung beginnt bei Männern – Systematisches Karenzmanagement für Mütter, Väter und das Unternehmen

Haslinger W. Frauen‐ und Familienförderung beginnt bei Männern – Systematisches Karenzmanagement für Mütter, Väter und das Unternehmen, Expertenforum K3 "Karenzmanagement macht Karriere" 2012, 9th of May 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Fuel indexes –a novel method for the evaluation of relevant combustion properties of new biomass fuels

Sommersacher P, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Fuel indexes –a novel method for the evaluation of relevant combustion properties of new biomass fuels, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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The increasing demand for biomass fuels leads to the introduction of new biomass fuels into the market. These new biomass fuels (e.g., wastes and residues from agriculture and the food industry, short rotation coppices, and energy crops) are usually not well-defined regarding their combustion behavior. Therefore, fuel characterization methods with a special focus on combustion-related problems (gaseous NOx, HCl, and SOx emissions, ash-melting behavior, and PM emissions) have to be developed. For this purpose, fuel indexes are an interesting option. Fuel indexes are derived from chemical fuel analyses and are checked and evaluated regarding their applicability by measurements performed at lab- and real-scale combustion plants for a large variety of fuels. They provide the possibilities for a pre-evaluation of combustion-relevant problems that may arise from the use of a new biomass fuel. A possible relation to describe the corrosion risk is, for instance, the molar 2S/Cl ratio. The N content in the fuel is an indicator for NOx emissions, and the sum of the concentrations of K, Na, Zn, and Pb in the fuel can give a prediction of the aerosol emissions, whereas the molar (K + Na)/[x(2S + Cl)] ratio provides a first indication regarding the potential for gaseous HCl and SOx emissions. The molar Si/K ratio can supply information about the K release from the fuel to the gas phase. The molar Si/(Ca + Mg) ratio can give indications regarding the ash-melting temperatures for P-poor fuels. For P-rich fuels, the (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg) ratio can be used for the same purpose. The fuel indexes mentioned can provide a first pre-evaluation of combustion-relevant properties of biomass fuels. Therefore, time-consuming and expensive combustion tests can partly be saved. The indexes mentioned are especially developed for grate combustion plants, because interactions of the bed material possible in fluidized-bed combustion systems are not considered.


Conference Papers | 2019

Ganzheitliche Planung dezentraler Energiekonzepte durch mathematische Optimierung

Liedtke P, Stadler M, Zellinger M, Hengl F. Ganzheitliche Planung dezentraler Energiekonzepte durch mathematische Optimierung. e-nova Konferenz 2019.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Gas Cleaning and Treatment of product gas of a dual fluidised bed gasifier for CHP and synthesis applications

Rauch R. Gas Cleaning and Treatment of product gas of a dual fluidised bed gasifier for CHP and synthesis applications, SNG 2010, 30th of June-1st of July 2010, Concepcion, Chile.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Gasaufbereitung für die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese

Pölzl, P. Gasaufbereitung für die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Gasification of residues and waste wood in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Kitzler H, Hofbauer H. Gasification of residues and waste wood in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Germany.

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Because of the limited resources of fossil fuels the efficient use of renewable energy is gaining importance. Renewable energy from biomass reduces CO2 emissions, which is a necessity to protect the global climate. In the dual fluidised bed steam gasifier wood chips are converted to heat, power and other products very successfully. This work presents alternative feedstocks for this process: biomass wastes, such as waste wood, bark and reed. Waste wood and bark have been gasified successfully and first results of these experiments in the pilot plant are presented in this paper. It has been assessed that reed is also an interesting feedstock suitable for the use in fluidised bed gasifiers.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000

Haberl H, Kastner T, Schaffartzik A, Ludwiczek N, Erb K-. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000. Ecol Econ. 2012;84:66-73.

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Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing 'teleconnections' between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The 'embodied human appropriation of NPP' (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Conference contributions | 2017

GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies

Feldmeier S, Wopienka E, Schwarz M. GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies. 5th Central European Biomass Conference, Workshop Highlights of Bioenergy Research 2017 (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2020

GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies

Barroso G, Essl M, Feldmeier S, Mehrabian R, Nussbaumer T, Öhman M, Reiterer T, Schwarz M, Shiehnejad-Hesar A, Wopienka E. GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Scientific Journals | 2017

Green P – Nutzung von Verkehrsflächen zur Biomasseproduktion

Lichtenegger K, Zellinger M, Schipfer F. Green P – Nutzung von Verkehrsflächen zur Biomasseproduktion. Biobased Future 7. Jänner 2017.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Grid autarchy of automated pellets combustion systems by the means of thermoelectric generators

Höfteberger E, Moser W, Aigenbauer S, Friedl G, Haslinger W. Grid autarchy of automated pellets combustion systems by the means of thermoelectric generators, Thermoelectrics goes Automotive 2010, 9th-10th of December 2010, Berlin, Germany.

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Other Presentations | 2014

H2S and NH3 tolerance of acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

Rachbauer L, Lorber G, Ortner M, Bochmann G. H2S and NH3 tolerance of acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, 4th Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2016

Harmonised Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity, Heating and Cooling from Biomass

Ludwiczek N, Bacovsky D, Sonnleitner A, Strasser C. Harmonised Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity, Heating and Cooling from Biomass. e-nova 2016 (oral presentation). November 2016, Pinkafeld, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2017

HCNG or hythane production from biomass steam gasification

Kraussler M, Priscak J, Hofbauer H. HCNG or hythane production from biomass steam gasification. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2015

Heat pump enhanced heat recovery from flue gas of wood chips combustion

Hebenstreit B, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Kronberger B, Gappmayr B, Gautsch H, Lundgren J, Toffolo A. Heat pump enhanced heat recovery from flue gas of wood chips combustion, INFUB 10th European Conference on Industrial Furnace and Boilers 2015, 7th-10th of April 2015, Porto, Portugal.

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Conference contributions | 2012

High efficient industrial process carbon capture (CC) – Field tests

Martini S, Kleinhappl M, Zeisler J. High efficient industrial process carbon capture (CC) – Field tests, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1127-1131.

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In large scale industrial processes, such as iron production, or in gasification based process chains (coal/biomass to synthesis gas, fuel, or power, etc.), the separation of CO2 (Carbon Capture-CC) can lead to ecological and procedural benefits. Chemical absorption of CO2 is a well proved technology for CC with comparatively low electrical energy demand. However, the high heat demand, absorption kinetics, CO2 capacity and sorbent degradation are limiting factors for the industrial application. Further investigation and development of sorbent-solutions in relation to specific gas conditions are necessary for optimisation. For testing different sorbent-solutions a mobile test plant was designed and built up. Focus of this work was the evaluation of process key data for CC in blast furnace gas under real conditions. The tests have been carried out continuously up to 300 hours. Aqueous monoethanol-amine (MEA), diethanol-amine (DEA) and methyl-diethanol-amine (MDEA) solutions have been investigated. Detailed analyses of the process gas, analyses of used liquids (chemical properties, degradation products) and the examination of process data lead to further development in process design, control strategies for specific applications and give routes for an efficient implementation of CC to increase the benefit in the overall process chain.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

High Utilization of Humidified Ammonia and Methane in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: An Experimental Study of Performance and Stability

Stöckl B, Preininger M, Subotic V, Gaber C, Seidl M, Sommersacher P, Schröttner H, Hochenauer C. High Utilization of Humidified Ammonia and Methane in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: An Experimental Study of Performance and Stability. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2019.166:F774-F783.

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Wastewater contains high amounts of unused energy in the form of dissolved ammonia, which can easily be converted into gaseous humidified ammonia via membrane distillation, thus providing a potential fuel for solid oxide fuel cells. This study presents comprehensive investigations of the use of humidified ammonia as the primary fuel component in high-fuel utilization conditions. For these investigations, large planar anode- and electrolyte-supported solid oxide single cells were operated at the respective appropriate temperatures, 800°C and 850°C. Fueled with ammonia, both cells exhibited excellent ammonia conversion ( > 99.5%) in addition to excellent performance output and fuel utilization. In 100 h stability tests performed at 80% fuel utilization, the cells exhibited stable performance, despite scanning electron microscopy analyzes revealing partial impairments to the nickel parts of both cells due to the formation and subsequent decomposition of nickel nitride. This study also demonstrates that methane is a perfect additional fuel component for humidified ammonia streams, as steam supports the internal reforming of methane. Alternating and direct current as well as electrochemical impedance measurements with a variety of ammonia/steam/methane/nitrogen fuel mixtures were used to evaluate the performance potential of the cells, and proved their stability over 48 h in highly polarized conditions.


Conference contributions | 2011

Highlights der Bioenergieforschung

Fercher E. Highlights der Bioenergieforschung, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Other publication | 2017

Honeycomb catalysts integrated in firewood stoves - potentials and limitations

Reichert G, Haslinger W, Kirchhof JM, Schmidl C, Sedlmayer I, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Honeycomb catalysts integrated in firewood stoves - potentials and limitations. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2020

How to create value chains from different feedstocks

Enigl M, How to create value chains from different feedstocks. 6th Central Eurpean Biomass Conference, 22-254 January 2020, Graz.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2015

Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas

Chianese, S, Loipersböck J, Malits M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Molino A, Musmarra D. Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas. Fuel Processing Technology. 2015;132:39-48.

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The high temperature water gas shift reaction (HTS) over an iron/chromium (Fe/Cr) industrial catalyst was investigated in a pilot scale plant consisting of two fixed-bed reactors arranged in series and a biomass-derived tar-rich synthesis gas was used as a feed-stream. CO conversion and selectivity for the water gas shift reaction were evaluated through parameter variation. Four dry gas hourly space velocities (GHSv) and two steam to dry synthesis gas ratios (H2O/SGd) equal to 52% v/v and 60% v/v were investigated at temperatures (T) of 350–450 °C. CO conversion was investigated by varying H2S concentration 180–540 ppmv (dry basis) at a temperature of 425 °C, considering two GHSVd. The highest CO conversion (~ 83%) was observed in the basis case at 60% v/v H2O/SGd, and 450 °C. The catalyst appeared to be resistant to sulfur poisoning deactivation, and achieved 48% CO conversion at the maximum H2S concentration used.


Contributions to trade journals | 2015

Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas

Chianese S, Loipersböck J, Malits M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Molino A, et al. Hydrogen from the high temperature water gas shift reaction with an industrial Fe/Cr catalyst using biomass gasification tar rich synthesis gas. Fuel Process Technol 2015;132:39-48.

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